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Sorogena stoianovitchae Bradbury and Olive

50031

Product category
Protists
Classification
KINGDOM: Protozoa
Strain designation
PNG 76-73
Type strain
No
Isolation source
Old aborted fruits and stalks of Ficus botryocarpa
Geographical isolation
Papua New Guinea
Product format
Test tube
Storage conditions
See handling procedure
Mission Collection Item
This is a Mission Collection Item

Documentation

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Biosafety Icon BSL 1

ATCC determines the biosafety level of a material based on our risk assessment as guided by the current edition of Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. It is your responsibility to understand the hazards associated with the material per your organization’s policies and procedures as well as any other applicable regulations as enforced by your local or national agencies.

ATCC highly recommends that appropriate personal protective equipment is always used when handling vials. For cultures that require storage in liquid nitrogen, it is important to note that some vials may leak when submersed in liquid nitrogen and will slowly fill with liquid nitrogen. Upon thawing, the conversion of the liquid nitrogen back to its gas phase may result in the vial exploding or blowing off its cap with dangerous force creating flying debris. Unless necessary, ATCC recommends that these cultures be stored in the vapor phase of liquid nitrogen rather than submersed in liquid nitrogen.

Detailed product information

General

Specific applications
Contact Sales for a recommended strain of Colpoda sp.

Characteristics

Comments
Contact Sales for a recommended strain of Colpoda sp. to be purchased with ATCC® 50031™.
Morphology, morphogenesis and systematic position
The structure and composition of stalk
Ultrastructure of aerial stalk formation

Handling information

Medium
Temperature
20-25°C
Handling procedure
Handling of Live Culture
This strain is routinely shipped as a growing culture in a glass 16 x 125 mm screw-capped test tube.  The volume of the cell suspension is approximately 5-6 mL.  When the culture arrives remove it promptly from the shipping container.  Do not store the culture at refrigeration temperatures before handling.  To assure viability, immediately loosen the test tube cap and incubate upright at 25°C for at least one hour before observing the culture.  There should be a number of attached Sorogena sorocarps near the fluid meniscus.  If the numbers are low the culture may have been exposed to temperature extremes in transit.  Regardless of the state of the culture, suspend attached sorocarps by placing the tube on ice for 10 min, then rub the inside surface of the tube with a sterile inoculating loop or cotton swab to detach cells.  Aseptically transfer the entire contents of the tube to a petri plate or T-25 tissue culture flask containing a bed of agar medium with 6-8 mL additional liquid overlay (ATCC medium 1330).  Incubate the culture at 20-25°C under a 14 hour light (~50 µEinsteins/m2/s irradiance)/10 hour dark cycle.
Handling notes
This strain feeds on Colpoda sp. (both organisms are included in the culture).  This is a xenic culture that contains bacteria.
Culture maintenance
  1. When the Sorogena have sufficiently reduced the number of prey Colpoda in the culture, their ability to aggregate and form sorocarps is diminished, and both predator and prey form cysts.  To revive an encysted culture, the liquid overlay should be aseptically removed and replaced with fresh medium, which will stimulate new bacterial growth and encourage excystment of Colpoda and then Sorogena.
  2. Incubate the culture at 20-25°C under a 14 hour light (~50 µEinsteins/m2/s irradiance)/10 hour dark cycle.  Active trophozoites (ciliates) of both Colpoda and Sorogena should be observed within 2-3 days. Sorogena sorocarps (cysts) should form just above the air-liquid interface in 5-7 days.
  3. To encourage faster proliferation of Sorogena, additional Colpoda sp. may be added to the culture from a separate culture of the prey organism kept in parallel (i.e., ATCC® 30920™ or similar, not provided).
  4. The Sorogena may be passaged to a new petri plate or T-25 flask by gently rubbing the agar surface with a spread bar to dislodge attached sorocarps and/or cysts, then transferring 0.5 to 2 mL to a fresh petri plate or T-25 flask containing a bed of agar medium and 10-15 mL total liquid overlay (ATCC medium 1330).
  5. Incubate the culture at 20-25°C under a 14 hour light (~50 µEinsteins/m2/s irradiance)/10 hour dark cycle.  Active trophozoites (ciliates) of both Colpoda and Sorogena should be observed within 2-3 days. Sorogena sorocarps (cysts) should form just above the air-liquid interface in 5-7 days.  Several cycles of growth and encystment may be required in order for the Sorogena culture to produce fruiting bodies.
Reagents for cryopreservation
Cryoprotective Solution
DMSO, 1.5 mL
Fresh growth medium w/o bacteria, 8.5 mL
Cryopreservation

  1. Mix the components in the order listed. When the medium is added to the DMSO the solution will warm up due to chemical heat.
  2. Harvest Sorogena and Colpoda cysts from a culture that has recently passed peak density by centrifugation at 1000 x g for 5 min.
  3. Adjust the concentration of cells to at least 2 x 104/mL in fresh medium.
  4. Mix the cell preparation and the cryoprotective solution in equal portions by adding the cryoprotective solution to the cell suspension in 3 equal aliquots at 2 min. intervals.
  5. Dispense in 0.5 mL aliquots into 1.0 - 2.0 mL sterile plastic screw-capped cryules (special plastic vials for cryopreservation).
  6. Place vials in a controlled rate freezing unit. From room temperature cool at -1°C/min to -40°C. If freezing unit can compensate for the heat of fusion, maintain rate at -1°C/min through heat of fusion. At -40°C plunge ampules into liquid nitrogen. Alternatively, place the vials in a Nalgene 1°C freezing apparatus.  Place the apparatus at -80°C for 1.5 to 2 hours and then plunge ampules into liquid nitrogen.  (The cooling rate in this apparatus is approximately -1°C/min.)  
  7. Ampules are stored in either the vapor or liquid phase of a nitrogen refrigerator.
  8. To establish a culture from the frozen state place the vial in a 35°C water bath. Immerse the vial to a level just above the surface of the frozen material. Do not agitate the vial. Immediately after thawing, do not leave in water bath, aseptically remove the contents of the ampule and transfer to a petri plate or T-25 tissue culture flask containing a bed of agar medium and 10-15 mL total liquid overlay (ATCC medium 1330).
  9. Optionally, aseptically transfer 0.2-0.5 mL from a growing culture of Colpoda sp. to the petri plate or T-25 flask (See section on Culture Maintenance).
  10. Incubate the culture at 20-25°C under a 14 hour light (~50 µEinsteins/m2/s irradiance)/10 hour dark cycle.  Active trophozoites (ciliates) of both Colpoda and Sorogena should be observed within 2-3 days.  Once the culture is established, follow the protocol for maintenance of culture.

History

Deposited as
Sorogena stoianovitchae Bradbury and Olive
Depositors
RL Blanton
Chain of custody
ATCC <-- RL Blanton <-- LS Olive
Type of isolate
Plant
Year of origin
1976

Legal disclaimers

Intended use
This product is intended for laboratory research use only. It is not intended for any animal or human therapeutic use, any human or animal consumption, or any diagnostic use.
Warranty

The product is provided 'AS IS' and the viability of ATCC® products is warranted for 30 days from the date of shipment, provided that the customer has stored and handled the product according to the information included on the product information sheet, website, and Certificate of Analysis. For living cultures, ATCC lists the media formulation and reagents that have been found to be effective for the product. While other unspecified media and reagents may also produce satisfactory results, a change in the ATCC and/or depositor-recommended protocols may affect the recovery, growth, and/or function of the product. If an alternative medium formulation or reagent is used, the ATCC warranty for viability is no longer valid.  Except as expressly set forth herein, no other warranties of any kind are provided, express or implied, including, but not limited to, any implied warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, manufacture according to cGMP standards, typicality, safety, accuracy, and/or noninfringement.

Disclaimers

This product is intended for laboratory research use only. It is not intended for any animal or human therapeutic use, any human or animal consumption, or any diagnostic use. Any proposed commercial use is prohibited without a license from ATCC.

While ATCC uses reasonable efforts to include accurate and up-to-date information on this product sheet, ATCC makes no warranties or representations as to its accuracy. Citations from scientific literature and patents are provided for informational purposes only. ATCC does not warrant that such information has been confirmed to be accurate or complete and the customer bears the sole responsibility of confirming the accuracy and completeness of any such information.

This product is sent on the condition that the customer is responsible for and assumes all risk and responsibility in connection with the receipt, handling, storage, disposal, and use of the ATCC product including without limitation taking all appropriate safety and handling precautions to minimize health or environmental risk. As a condition of receiving the material, the customer agrees that any activity undertaken with the ATCC product and any progeny or modifications will be conducted in compliance with all applicable laws, regulations, and guidelines. This product is provided 'AS IS' with no representations or warranties whatsoever except as expressly set forth herein and in no event shall ATCC, its parents, subsidiaries, directors, officers, agents, employees, assigns, successors, and affiliates be liable for indirect, special, incidental, or consequential damages of any kind in connection with or arising out of the customer's use of the product. While reasonable effort is made to ensure authenticity and reliability of materials on deposit, ATCC is not liable for damages arising from the misidentification or misrepresentation of such materials.

Please see the material transfer agreement (MTA) for further details regarding the use of this product. The MTA is available at www.atcc.org.

Permits & Restrictions

Import Permit for the State of Hawaii

If shipping to the U.S. state of Hawaii, you must provide either an import permit or documentation stating that an import permit is not required. We cannot ship this item until we receive this documentation. Contact the Hawaii Department of Agriculture (HDOA), Plant Industry Division, Plant Quarantine Branch to determine if an import permit is required.

MORE INFORMATION ABOUT PERMITS AND RESTRICTIONS

References

Curated Citations

Bardele CF, et al. Morphology, morphogenesis and systematic position of the sorocarp forming ciliate Sorogena stoianovitchae Bradbury & Olive, 1980. J. Protozool. 38: 7-17, 1991.

Blanton RL, et al. . J. Protozool. 30: 617-624, 1983.

Blanton RL, Olive LS. Stalk function during sorogenesis by the ciliated protozoan Sorogena stoianovitchae. Protoplasma 116: 136-144, 1983.

Blanton RL, Olive LS. Ultrastructure of aerial stalk formation by the ciliated protozoan Sorogena stoianovitchae. Protoplasma 116: 125-135, 1983.

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