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ATCC highly recommends that appropriate personal protective equipment is always used when handling vials. For cultures that require storage in liquid nitrogen, it is important to note that some vials may leak when submersed in liquid nitrogen and will slowly fill with liquid nitrogen. Upon thawing, the conversion of the liquid nitrogen back to its gas phase may result in the vial exploding or blowing off its cap with dangerous force creating flying debris. Unless necessary, ATCC recommends that these cultures be stored in the vapor phase of liquid nitrogen rather than submersed in liquid nitrogen.
The parental cell lines ATCC CRL-2918 (NM2C5) and ATCC CRL-2914 (M4A4) were derived from the human breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-435.
Note: Recent studies have generated questions about the origin of the parent cell line, MDA-MB-435. Additional studies have since corroborated a melanocyte origin of MDA-MB-435, to which ATCC has responded by pursuing its own investigation into the identity of this cell line.
The NM2C5 GFP (ATCC CRL-2919) cell line was developed by the transduction of the GFP gene into NM2C5 (ATCC CRL-2918) cell line.
M4A4 is highly metastatic in immuno-deprived mice, while NM2C5 is weakly or virtually non-metastatic.
Gene expression analysis of the cells produced microarrays in which MDA-MB-435 clustered with cell lines of melanoma origin instead of breast.
The cell line to which MDA-MB-435 is reported to have been cross-contaminated with is the M14 melanoma line RefRae JM, et al. Common origins of MDA-MB-435 cells from various sources with those shown to have melanoma properties. Clin. Exp. Metastasis 21: 543-552, 2004. PubMed: 15679052 RefRoss DT, et al. Systematic variation in gene expression patterns in human cancer cell lines. Nature Genetics 24: 227-235, 2000. PubMed: 10700174 RefEllison G, et al. Further evidence to support the melanocytic origin of MDA-MB-435. Mol. Pathol. 55: 294-299, 2002. PubMed: 12354931. RefSellappan S, et al. Lineage infidelity of MDA-MB-435 cells: expression of melanocyte proteins in a breast cancer cell line. Cancer Res. 64: 3479-3485, 2004. PubMed: 15150101. RefRae JM, et al., MDA-MB-435 cells are derived from M14 Melanoma cells - a loss for breast cancer, but a boon for melanoma research. Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 104:13-19, 2007. PubMed: 17004106..
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Ross DT, et al. Systematic variation in gene expression patterns in human cancer cell lines. Nature Genetics 24: 227-235, 2000. PubMed: 10700174
Bao L, et al. Correlation of VLA-4 integrin expression with metastatic potential in various human tumour cell lines. Differentiation 52: 239-246, 1993. PubMed: 7683291
Urquidi V, et al. Contrasting expression of thrombospondin-1 and osteopontin correlates with absence or presence of metastatic phenotype in an isogenic model of spontaneous human breast cancer metastasis. Clin. Cancer Res. 8: 61-74, 2003. PubMed: 11801541
Rae JM, et al. Common origins of MDA-MB-435 cells from various sources with those shown to have melanoma properties. Clin. Exp. Metastasis 21: 543-552, 2004. PubMed: 15679052
Goodison S, et al. Prolonged dormancy and site-specific growth potential of cancer cells spontaneously disseminated from nonmetastatic breast tumors as revealed by labeling with green fluorescent protein. Clin. Cancer Res. 9: 3808-3814, 2003. PubMed: 14506175