NTERA-2 cl.D1 [NT2/D1]
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ATCC highly recommends that appropriate personal protective equipment is always used when handling vials. For cultures that require storage in liquid nitrogen, it is important to note that some vials may leak when submersed in liquid nitrogen and will slowly fill with liquid nitrogen. Upon thawing, the conversion of the liquid nitrogen back to its gas phase may result in the vial exploding or blowing off its cap with dangerous force creating flying debris. Unless necessary, ATCC recommends that these cultures be stored in the vapor phase of liquid nitrogen rather than submersed in liquid nitrogen.
This clone differentiates along neuroectodermal lineages after exposure to retinoic acid (RA) or hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA).
The RA induced differentiation is characterized by glycolipid changes, appearance of neurons, and induction of homeobox (HOX) gene clusters.
The cells exhibit high expression of N-myc oncogene activity.
To induce differentiation, the cells should be trypsinized and seeded at a density 1 X 10 exp6 cells per 75 sq. cm. in medium containing 0.01 mM trans-retinoic acid.
To insure the highest level of viability, thaw the vial and initiate the culture as soon as possible upon receipt. If upon arrival, continued storage of the frozen culture is necessary, it should be stored in liquid nitrogen vapor phase and not at -70°C. Storage at -70°C will result in loss of viability.
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Andrews PW. Human teratocarcinomas. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 948: 17-36, 1988. PubMed: 3293662
Mavilio F, et al. Activation of four homeobox gene clusters in human embryonal carcinoma cells induced to differentiate by retinoic acid. Differentiation 37: 73-79, 1988. PubMed: 2898410
Fenderson BA, et al. Glycolipid core structure switching from globo- to lacto- and ganglio- series during retinoic acid-induced differentiation of TERA-2-derived human embryonal carcinoma cells. Dev. Biol. 122: 21-34, 1987. PubMed: 3297853
Andrews PW, et al. Pluripotent embryonal carcinoma clones derived from the human teratocarcinoma cell line Tera-2. Differentiation in vivo and in vitro. Lab. Invest. 50: 147-162, 1984. PubMed: 6694356
Andrews PW, et al. Different patterns of glycolipid antigens are expressed following differentiation of TERA-2 human embryonal carcinoma cells induced by retinoic acid, hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA) or bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR). Differentiation 43: 131-138, 1990. PubMed: 2373286