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ATCC highly recommends that appropriate personal protective equipment is always used when handling vials. For cultures that require storage in liquid nitrogen, it is important to note that some vials may leak when submersed in liquid nitrogen and will slowly fill with liquid nitrogen. Upon thawing, the conversion of the liquid nitrogen back to its gas phase may result in the vial exploding or blowing off its cap with dangerous force creating flying debris. Unless necessary, ATCC recommends that these cultures be stored in the vapor phase of liquid nitrogen rather than submersed in liquid nitrogen.
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Hull RN, Huseby RM. Enhanced production of plasminogen activator. US Patent 3,904,480 dated Sep 9 1975
Perantoni A, Berman JJ. Properties of Wilms' tumor line (TuWi) and pig kidney line (LLC-PK1) typical of normal kidney tubular epithelium. In Vitro 15: 446-454, 1979. PubMed: 225262
Loffler S, et al. CD9, a tetraspan transmembrane protein, renders cells susceptible to canine distemper virus. J. Virol. 71: 42-49, 1997. PubMed: 8985321