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Geobacter sulfurreducens Caccavo et al.


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Geobacter sulfurreducens strain PCA was isolated from surface sediments in Norman, Oklahoma. This whole-genome sequenced bacterial type strain can be used in biotechnology.
Product category
Product type
Strain designation
Type strain
Genome sequenced strain
Isolation source
Surface sediments
Geographical isolation
United States; Oklahoma; Norman
Product format
Storage conditions
-80°C or colder
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ATCC determines the biosafety level of a material based on our risk assessment as guided by the current edition of Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. It is your responsibility to understand the hazards associated with the material per your organization’s policies and procedures as well as any other applicable regulations as enforced by your local or national agencies.

ATCC highly recommends that appropriate personal protective equipment is always used when handling vials. For cultures that require storage in liquid nitrogen, it is important to note that some vials may leak when submersed in liquid nitrogen and will slowly fill with liquid nitrogen. Upon thawing, the conversion of the liquid nitrogen back to its gas phase may result in the vial exploding or blowing off its cap with dangerous force creating flying debris. Unless necessary, ATCC recommends that these cultures be stored in the vapor phase of liquid nitrogen rather than submersed in liquid nitrogen.

Detailed product information


Specific applications


Extremophile type
Sulfate reducer
Genome sequenced strain

Handling information

80% N2, 20% CO2
Handling procedure
  1. Keep vial frozen until ready to use.
  2. To reduce media before inoculation, use 5% coenzyme M (0.1 mL per 10 mL). 1 M Fumarate (0.2 mL per 10 mL of broth and 0.2 mL per plate) needs to be added before inoculation. If needed, exchange the gas in the test tube for 80% N2-20% CO2 or 80% N2-10% CO2-10% H2.
  3. Under anaerobic conditions, thaw vial  and then quickly transfer into a single tube of #1957 broth. A second tube of #1957 broth can also be inoculated with 0.5 mL from the original broth.
  4. Incubate at 26°C to 30°C for 5 to 6 days. Subsequent transfers will grow faster following the initial recovery period.
  5. Growth is evident by turbidity and an accumulation of cells at the bottom of the broth that are an orange/pink coloration.



Anaerobic conditions for transfer may be obtained by either of the following:

  • Use of an anaerobic gas chamber, or                                        
  • Placement of test tubes under a gassing cannula system hooked to anaerobic gas.   

Anaerobic conditions for incubation may be obtained by any of the following:

  • Loose screw caps on test tubes in anaerobic chamber,                       
  • Loose screw caps on test tubes in an activated anaerobic gas pack jar, or
  • Use of sterile butyl rubber stoppers on test tubes so that an anaerobic gas headspace is retained.


Handling notes

This culture grows well in broth if Hungate tubes are used. For larger volumes, use serum bottles. Incubation of up to 20 days may be required for growth on agar. Add 0.2 mL of 1M Fumarate to each plate prior to inoculation. No growth should occur on nonselective media.

We strongly suggest obtaining reference Caccavo et al. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60: 37523759 (1994) for further information.

Purified genomic DNA of this strain is available as ATCC® 51573D-5™.

Additional information on this culture is available on the ATCC® web site at

Quality control specifications

Verification method
Whole-genome Sequencing


Deposited as
Geobacter sulfurreducens Caccavo et al.
F Caccavo
Type of isolate
Cross references
GenBank AE017180 Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA, complete genome.

Legal disclaimers

Intended use
This product is intended for laboratory research use only. It is not intended for any animal or human therapeutic use, any human or animal consumption, or any diagnostic use.

The product is provided 'AS IS' and the viability of ATCC® products is warranted for 30 days from the date of shipment, provided that the customer has stored and handled the product according to the information included on the product information sheet, website, and Certificate of Analysis. For living cultures, ATCC lists the media formulation and reagents that have been found to be effective for the product. While other unspecified media and reagents may also produce satisfactory results, a change in the ATCC and/or depositor-recommended protocols may affect the recovery, growth, and/or function of the product. If an alternative medium formulation or reagent is used, the ATCC warranty for viability is no longer valid.  Except as expressly set forth herein, no other warranties of any kind are provided, express or implied, including, but not limited to, any implied warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, manufacture according to cGMP standards, typicality, safety, accuracy, and/or noninfringement.


This product is intended for laboratory research use only. It is not intended for any animal or human therapeutic use, any human or animal consumption, or any diagnostic use. Any proposed commercial use is prohibited without a license from ATCC.

While ATCC uses reasonable efforts to include accurate and up-to-date information on this product sheet, ATCC makes no warranties or representations as to its accuracy. Citations from scientific literature and patents are provided for informational purposes only. ATCC does not warrant that such information has been confirmed to be accurate or complete and the customer bears the sole responsibility of confirming the accuracy and completeness of any such information.

This product is sent on the condition that the customer is responsible for and assumes all risk and responsibility in connection with the receipt, handling, storage, disposal, and use of the ATCC product including without limitation taking all appropriate safety and handling precautions to minimize health or environmental risk. As a condition of receiving the material, the customer agrees that any activity undertaken with the ATCC product and any progeny or modifications will be conducted in compliance with all applicable laws, regulations, and guidelines. This product is provided 'AS IS' with no representations or warranties whatsoever except as expressly set forth herein and in no event shall ATCC, its parents, subsidiaries, directors, officers, agents, employees, assigns, successors, and affiliates be liable for indirect, special, incidental, or consequential damages of any kind in connection with or arising out of the customer's use of the product. While reasonable effort is made to ensure authenticity and reliability of materials on deposit, ATCC is not liable for damages arising from the misidentification or misrepresentation of such materials.

Please see the material transfer agreement (MTA) for further details regarding the use of this product. The MTA is available at

Permits & Restrictions

Import Permit for the State of Hawaii

If shipping to the U.S. state of Hawaii, you must provide either an import permit or documentation stating that an import permit is not required. We cannot ship this item until we receive this documentation. Contact the Hawaii Department of Agriculture (HDOA), Plant Industry Division, Plant Quarantine Branch to determine if an import permit is required.



Curated Citations

Validation list no. 54. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 45: 619-620, 1995.

Caccavo F Jr., et al. Geobacter sulfurreducens sp. nov., a hydrogen- and acetate-oxidizing dissimilatory metal-reducing microorganism. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60: 3752-3759, 1994. PubMed: 7527204

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