• Careers
  • Support

Helicobacter bilis Fox et al.


Download Genome Learn about the ATCC Genome Portal
Product category
Strain designation
Type strain
Genome sequenced strain
Isolation source
Geographical isolation
United States; Wisconsin
Product format
Mission Collection Item
This is a Mission Collection Item.


ATCC determines the biosafety level of a material based on our risk assessment as guided by the current edition of Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. It is your responsibility to understand the hazards associated with the material per your organization’s policies and procedures as well as any other applicable regulations as enforced by your local or national agencies.

ATCC highly recommends that appropriate personal protective equipment is always used when handling vials. For cultures that require storage in liquid nitrogen, it is important to note that some vials may leak when submersed in liquid nitrogen and will slowly fill with liquid nitrogen. Upon thawing, the conversion of the liquid nitrogen back to its gas phase may result in the vial exploding or blowing off its cap with dangerous force creating flying debris. Unless necessary, ATCC recommends that these cultures be stored in the vapor phase of liquid nitrogen rather than submersed in liquid nitrogen.

Detailed product information




Flexispira taxon 8
This strain has been sequenced as a reference genome for the NIH Human Microbiome Project.

Handling information

Microaerophilic: 3-5% O2, 10% CO2
Handling procedure
  1. Open vial according to enclosed instructions. Rehydrate contents of vial with 0.5 mL of #18 broth. 
  2. To obtain a biphasic culture, add 0.4 mL of the suspension to a #260 slant. Add remaining 0.1 mL of the suspension to a #260 plate and streak for isolation.
  3. Incubate at 37°C under microaerophilic conditions using an anaerobe jar with an active catalyst and a microaerophilic gas generator pack, or other acceptable method, to obtain microaerophilic conditions. Incubate slant with cap loose.
  4. Within three to five days of incubation, good growth should be obtained in the broth pool at the bottom of the slant. Secondary subcultures to fresh biphasic slants require shorter incubation times, 24 to 48 hours. Additional incubation may be required for colonies to appear on the plate. Further subcultures can be made using broth pool as the inoculum source.
Handling notes
This is a slow growing organism that requires moist conditions for best growth.  Growth at the broth/agar interface of the biphasic slant should occur within three to five days, but little turbidity will be seen.  To observe growth, examine a wet mount of the broth under phase microscopy.  The organism is a medium size, fusiform shaped, motile bacillus.

Individual colonies will not be observed.  Growth appears as a film on the surface of fresh, moist plates, extending out from original inoculation site to fill entire plate, usually within 48 to 72 hours.

The cells do not Gram stain well using traditional procedures.  For best results, use a basic fuchsin counterstain in place of the safranin.

Once good growth is obtained, transfer or freeze the culture.  Adding an equal amount of 20% sterile glycerol to pooled broth from several biphasic slants followed by freezing in liquid nitrogen or "ultra‑low temperature" freezer is recommended.

Additional information on this culture is available on the ATCC® web site at

Quality control specifications

Verification method
Whole-genome Sequencing


Deposited as
Flexispira rappini Bryner et al.
JR Archer
Type of isolate
Special collection
Human Microbiome Project (HMP)
Cross references
GenBank M88138 Helicobacter sp. 'Flexispira taxon 8' strain ATCC 43879 16S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence.
GenBank ACDN01000000 Helicobacter bilis ATCC 43879, whole genome shotgun sequencing project

Legal disclaimers

Intended use
This product is intended for laboratory research use only. It is not intended for any animal or human therapeutic use, any human or animal consumption, or any diagnostic use.

The product is provided 'AS IS' and the viability of ATCC® products is warranted for 30 days from the date of shipment, provided that the customer has stored and handled the product according to the information included on the product information sheet, website, and Certificate of Analysis. For living cultures, ATCC lists the media formulation and reagents that have been found to be effective for the product. While other unspecified media and reagents may also produce satisfactory results, a change in the ATCC and/or depositor-recommended protocols may affect the recovery, growth, and/or function of the product. If an alternative medium formulation or reagent is used, the ATCC warranty for viability is no longer valid.  Except as expressly set forth herein, no other warranties of any kind are provided, express or implied, including, but not limited to, any implied warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, manufacture according to cGMP standards, typicality, safety, accuracy, and/or noninfringement.


This product is intended for laboratory research use only. It is not intended for any animal or human therapeutic use, any human or animal consumption, or any diagnostic use. Any proposed commercial use is prohibited without a license from ATCC.

While ATCC uses reasonable efforts to include accurate and up-to-date information on this product sheet, ATCC makes no warranties or representations as to its accuracy. Citations from scientific literature and patents are provided for informational purposes only. ATCC does not warrant that such information has been confirmed to be accurate or complete and the customer bears the sole responsibility of confirming the accuracy and completeness of any such information.

This product is sent on the condition that the customer is responsible for and assumes all risk and responsibility in connection with the receipt, handling, storage, disposal, and use of the ATCC product including without limitation taking all appropriate safety and handling precautions to minimize health or environmental risk. As a condition of receiving the material, the customer agrees that any activity undertaken with the ATCC product and any progeny or modifications will be conducted in compliance with all applicable laws, regulations, and guidelines. This product is provided 'AS IS' with no representations or warranties whatsoever except as expressly set forth herein and in no event shall ATCC, its parents, subsidiaries, directors, officers, agents, employees, assigns, successors, and affiliates be liable for indirect, special, incidental, or consequential damages of any kind in connection with or arising out of the customer's use of the product. While reasonable effort is made to ensure authenticity and reliability of materials on deposit, ATCC is not liable for damages arising from the misidentification or misrepresentation of such materials.

Please see the material transfer agreement (MTA) for further details regarding the use of this product. The MTA is available at

Permits & Restrictions

Import Permit for the State of Hawaii

If shipping to the U.S. state of Hawaii, you must provide either an import permit or documentation stating that an import permit is not required. We cannot ship this item until we receive this documentation. Contact the Hawaii Department of Agriculture (HDOA), Plant Industry Division, Plant Quarantine Branch to determine if an import permit is required.


Frequently Asked Questions


Curated Citations

Archer JR, et al. Characterization of an unclassified microaerophilic bacterium associated with gastroenteritis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26: 101-105, 1988. PubMed: 3343302

Romero S, et al. Case report of an unclassified microaerophilic bacterium associated with gastroenteritis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26: 142-143, 1988. PubMed: 3343307

Dewhirst FE, et al. 'Flexispira rappini' strains represent at least 10 Helicobacter taxa. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 50(Pt 5): 1781-1787, 2000. PubMed: 11034487

Hanninen ML, et al. Extension of the species Helicobacter bilis to include the reference strains of Helicobacter sp. flexispira taxa 2, 3 and 8 and Finnish canine and feline flexispira strains. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 55(Pt 2): 891-898, 2005. PubMed: 15774681

Need assistance with this product? Contact our Technical Support team.


US and Puerto Rico

Outside the US

Hours of Operation

9:00am - 5:00pm
US Eastern Time