Helicobacter bilis Fox et al.
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ATCC highly recommends that appropriate personal protective equipment is always used when handling vials. For cultures that require storage in liquid nitrogen, it is important to note that some vials may leak when submersed in liquid nitrogen and will slowly fill with liquid nitrogen. Upon thawing, the conversion of the liquid nitrogen back to its gas phase may result in the vial exploding or blowing off its cap with dangerous force creating flying debris. Unless necessary, ATCC recommends that these cultures be stored in the vapor phase of liquid nitrogen rather than submersed in liquid nitrogen.
Individual colonies will not be observed. Growth appears as a film on the surface of fresh, moist plates, extending out from original inoculation site to fill entire plate, usually within 48 to 72 hours.
The cells do not Gram stain well using traditional procedures. For best results, use a basic fuchsin counterstain in place of the safranin.
Once good growth is obtained, transfer or freeze the culture. Adding an equal amount of 20% sterile glycerol to pooled broth from several biphasic slants followed by freezing in liquid nitrogen or "ultra‑low temperature" freezer is recommended.
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Archer JR, et al. Characterization of an unclassified microaerophilic bacterium associated with gastroenteritis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26: 101-105, 1988. PubMed: 3343302
Romero S, et al. Case report of an unclassified microaerophilic bacterium associated with gastroenteritis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26: 142-143, 1988. PubMed: 3343307
Dewhirst FE, et al. 'Flexispira rappini' strains represent at least 10 Helicobacter taxa. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 50(Pt 5): 1781-1787, 2000. PubMed: 11034487
Hanninen ML, et al. Extension of the species Helicobacter bilis to include the reference strains of Helicobacter sp. flexispira taxa 2, 3 and 8 and Finnish canine and feline flexispira strains. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 55(Pt 2): 891-898, 2005. PubMed: 15774681