Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Mare and Switzer


Product category
Strain designation
[VMRI 11]
Type strain
Isolation source
Enzootic pneumonia of swine
Agricultural research
Infectious disease research
Respiratory disease research
Product format
Storage conditions
2°C to 8°C
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ATCC determines the biosafety level of a material based on our risk assessment as guided by the current edition of Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. It is your responsibility to understand the hazards associated with the material per your organization’s policies and procedures as well as any other applicable regulations as enforced by your local or national agencies.

ATCC highly recommends that appropriate personal protective equipment is always used when handling vials. For cultures that require storage in liquid nitrogen, it is important to note that some vials may leak when submersed in liquid nitrogen and will slowly fill with liquid nitrogen. Upon thawing, the conversion of the liquid nitrogen back to its gas phase may result in the vial exploding or blowing off its cap with dangerous force creating flying debris. Unless necessary, ATCC recommends that these cultures be stored in the vapor phase of liquid nitrogen rather than submersed in liquid nitrogen.

Detailed product information


Specific applications
Respiratory research

Handling information

Broth: Aerobic
Plates: 5% CO2
Handling procedure
  1. Follow instructions as suggested for the culturing of Mollicutes:


    1. Open the vial according to the enclosed instructions.
    2. Using a Pasteur or 1.0 mL pipette, withdraw 0.25 mL from a tube of #1699 broth. Rehydrate the entire pellet.
    3. Aseptically transfer this aliquot back into the tube. Mix well.
    4. Make serial dilutions by transferring 0.25 mL from the first tube to a second tube containing 2.25 mL. Repeat process by transferring 0.25 mL from the second to a third tube, etc. Dilutions are important, not only for titration purposes, but also to keep culture in varying stages of growth. Many strains will die out rapidly once acid or alkaline conditions are reached. It is recommended to prepare several dilutions from the initial tube as the cryoprotectant used in the freeze drying process often inhibits growth.
    5. Use an uninoculated tube of broth to serve as a control.
    6. Plates may be inoculated to check colony morphology. You can also spot each dilution on the surface of plate (4 or more/plate) to determine the number of colony-forming units. However, not all strains do well on solid medium.
    7. Incubate all tubes and plates under the recommended conditions and appropriate temperature. The time necessary for growth will vary from strain to strain. Growth on plates generally requires additional incubation.
    8. Depending on the medium used, growth is indicated by increased turbidity, a color change, or both.
    9. Tubes are incubated aerobically, plates are incubated under 5% CO2 or in a candle jar. The incubation temperature is 37°C.
  1. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strains are very slow growing and produce a flocculent turbidity. It may be necessary to hold tubes up to a light source to detect growth. Initial growth may take up to a week to be detected in first tubes. An indicator change from red to orange to yellow is very slow. The best indicator of growth will be the flocs in the broth medium. The cells are best transferred when the medium is orange. After medium changes to yellow, cells have started to die. Subsequent transfers usually grow in 48+ hours, but may take longer depending on size of inoculum.
  2. After broth growth is established, freshly inoculated plates will take three or more days to produce colonies. The colonies vary in size from tiny to small; rough with irregular margin. They do not exhibit the usual "fried egg" appearance.
  3. For long term storage of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, freeze drying or freezing is recommended. Liquid nitrogen storage is the best method. Optimally grown cells are centrifuged at 9000 rpm for 30 minutes, the supernatant poured off, and the packed cells resuspended in a smaller amount of #1699 broth. To this, add an equal amount of sterile 20% glycerol as a cryoprotectant. This suspension is aliquoted into small plastic vials and stored at 70°C or below.
Handling notes
This strain does not grow well on agar. Growth is visible in broth before the indicator changes. Growth will take from 7 to 12 days.
Store vials at freezer temperatures until ready to use.
We have found that using a candle jar for CO2 conditions works better for those strains whose medium has an indicator present. CO2 incubators may lower the pH of the medium enough to cause a color change. This change may make it difficult to observe growth with those strains that show little turbidity.
Additional information on this culture is available on the ATCC® web site at


Deposited as
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Mare and Switzer
RG Wittler
Chain of custody
ATCC <-- RG Wittler <-- G Kenny <-- D Roberts (Weybridge adapted) <-- WP Switzer(?) VMRI-11
Type of isolate

Legal disclaimers

Intended use
This product is intended for laboratory research use only. It is not intended for any animal or human therapeutic use, any human or animal consumption, or any diagnostic use.

The product is provided 'AS IS' and the viability of ATCC® products is warranted for 30 days from the date of shipment, provided that the customer has stored and handled the product according to the information included on the product information sheet, website, and Certificate of Analysis. For living cultures, ATCC lists the media formulation and reagents that have been found to be effective for the product. While other unspecified media and reagents may also produce satisfactory results, a change in the ATCC and/or depositor-recommended protocols may affect the recovery, growth, and/or function of the product. If an alternative medium formulation or reagent is used, the ATCC warranty for viability is no longer valid.  Except as expressly set forth herein, no other warranties of any kind are provided, express or implied, including, but not limited to, any implied warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, manufacture according to cGMP standards, typicality, safety, accuracy, and/or noninfringement.


This product is intended for laboratory research use only. It is not intended for any animal or human therapeutic use, any human or animal consumption, or any diagnostic use. Any proposed commercial use is prohibited without a license from ATCC.

While ATCC uses reasonable efforts to include accurate and up-to-date information on this product sheet, ATCC makes no warranties or representations as to its accuracy. Citations from scientific literature and patents are provided for informational purposes only. ATCC does not warrant that such information has been confirmed to be accurate or complete and the customer bears the sole responsibility of confirming the accuracy and completeness of any such information.

This product is sent on the condition that the customer is responsible for and assumes all risk and responsibility in connection with the receipt, handling, storage, disposal, and use of the ATCC product including without limitation taking all appropriate safety and handling precautions to minimize health or environmental risk. As a condition of receiving the material, the customer agrees that any activity undertaken with the ATCC product and any progeny or modifications will be conducted in compliance with all applicable laws, regulations, and guidelines. This product is provided 'AS IS' with no representations or warranties whatsoever except as expressly set forth herein and in no event shall ATCC, its parents, subsidiaries, directors, officers, agents, employees, assigns, successors, and affiliates be liable for indirect, special, incidental, or consequential damages of any kind in connection with or arising out of the customer's use of the product. While reasonable effort is made to ensure authenticity and reliability of materials on deposit, ATCC is not liable for damages arising from the misidentification or misrepresentation of such materials.

Please see the material transfer agreement (MTA) for further details regarding the use of this product. The MTA is available at

Permits & Restrictions

United States Veterinary Permit for Importation and Transportation of Controlled Materials and Organisms and Vectors

For every order of this item, you must provide a valid Permit for Importation and Transportation of Controlled Materials and Organisms and Vectors (VS Form 16-6A) obtained from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. We cannot ship this item until we receive this permit.

Import Permit for the State of Hawaii

If shipping to the U.S. state of Hawaii, you must provide either an import permit or documentation stating that an import permit is not required. We cannot ship this item until we receive this documentation. Contact the Hawaii Department of Agriculture (HDOA), Plant Industry Division, Plant Quarantine Branch to determine if an import permit is required.



Curated Citations

Mare CJ, Switzer WP. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae a causative agent of virus pig pneumonia. Vet. Med. 60: 841-846, 1965.

. . Vet. Rec. 82: 362-363, 1968.

. The Mycoplasmatales and the L-phase of bacteria. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts; 1969.

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