• Careers
  • Support

Kluyveromyces lactis (Dombrowski) van der Walt


Download Genome Learn about the ATCC Genome Portal
An ampoule containing viable cells (may include spores and mycelia) suspended in cryoprotectant.
Product category
Product type
Strain designation
[61, type C, CBS 2359, CCRC 21716, DSM 70799, IFO 1267, NRRL Y-1140, VKPM Y-1174]
Type strain
Genome sequenced strain
Isolation source
Geographical isolation
United States
Industrial biotechnology
Product format
Storage conditions
2°C to 8°C
Buy Now
Price: $460.00 EA
Discounts may be available for our fellow nonprofit organizations. Login to see your price.

Limited inventory


ATCC determines the biosafety level of a material based on our risk assessment as guided by the current edition of Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. It is your responsibility to understand the hazards associated with the material per your organization’s policies and procedures as well as any other applicable regulations as enforced by your local or national agencies.

ATCC highly recommends that appropriate personal protective equipment is always used when handling vials. For cultures that require storage in liquid nitrogen, it is important to note that some vials may leak when submersed in liquid nitrogen and will slowly fill with liquid nitrogen. Upon thawing, the conversion of the liquid nitrogen back to its gas phase may result in the vial exploding or blowing off its cap with dangerous force creating flying debris. Unless necessary, ATCC recommends that these cultures be stored in the vapor phase of liquid nitrogen rather than submersed in liquid nitrogen.

Detailed product information


Specific applications
Degrades whey permeate
Hydrolyzes whey lactose
Produces L-methionine
Produces beta-galactosidase beta-D-galactosidase
Produces killer toxin
Produces L-methionine from whey permeate


a [k1+ k2+]
Regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase activity by E1alpha subunit levels
Resistant to killer toxin produced by Schwanniomyces occidentalis (ATCC® 44252™)
Carries two linear DNA plasmids, pGK11 and pGK12
Transcriptional regulation of beta-galactosidase gene
Effect of lactose permeabilization on beta-galactosidase production
Killer, immune
Genome sequencing strain (Genolevures Consortium, France).
Sequenced mitochondrial genome.

Handling information

Handling procedure
For freeze-dry (lyophilized) ampoules:
  1. Open an ampoule according to enclosed instructions.
  2. From a single test tube of sterile distilled water (5 to 6 mL), withdraw approximately 0.5 to 1.0 mL with a sterile pipette and apply directly to the pellet.  Stir to form a suspension.
  3. Aseptically transfer the suspension back into the test tube of sterile distilled water.
  4. Let the test tube sit at room temperature (25°C) undisturbed for at least 2 hours; longer (e.g., overnight) rehydration might increase viability of some fungi.
  5. Mix the suspension well.  Use several drops (or make dilutions if desired) to inoculate recommended solid or liquid medium. Include a control that receives no inoculum.
  6. Incubate the inoculum at the propagation conditions recommended.
  7. Inspect for growth of the inoculum/strain regularly. The sign of viability is noticeable typically after 1-2 days of incubation. However, the time necessary for significant growth will vary from strain to strain.  
Handling notes
No special notes.

Additional, updated information on this product may be available on the ATCC® web site at

Quality control specifications

Sequenced data
18S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence; internal transcribed spacer 1, 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, and internal transcribed spacer 2, complete sequence; and 26S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence


D1D2 region of the 26S ribosomal RNA gene


Verification method
Whole-genome Sequencing


Deposited as
Kluyveromyces lactis (Dombrowski) van der Walt
Saccharomyces lactis Dombrowski, teleomorph; Kluyveromyces vanudenii (van der Walt et Nel) van der Walt, teleomorph; Zygosaccharomyces casei Sacchetti, teleomorph; Zygosaccharomyces lactis Dombrowski, teleomorph; Zygofabos~
Lederle Labs.
Chain of custody
ATCC <-- Lederle Labs. <-- N.C. Laffer 61, type C (Zygosaccharomyces lactis)
Cross references
GenBank KU729077 ITS including 5.8S rRNA gene
GenBank KU729173 D1/D2 region of 28S rRNA gene
GenBank X72499 nucleotide sequence of KlGGS1 gene
GenBank X81421 K.lactis gene for alpha-alpha-trehalose 1-D-glucohydrolase.
GenBank CR382121 Kluyveromyces lactis strain NRRL Y-1140 chromosome A complete sequence.

Legal disclaimers

Intended use
This product is intended for laboratory research use only. It is not intended for any animal or human therapeutic use, any human or animal consumption, or any diagnostic use.

The product is provided 'AS IS' and the viability of ATCC® products is warranted for 30 days from the date of shipment, provided that the customer has stored and handled the product according to the information included on the product information sheet, website, and Certificate of Analysis. For living cultures, ATCC lists the media formulation and reagents that have been found to be effective for the product. While other unspecified media and reagents may also produce satisfactory results, a change in the ATCC and/or depositor-recommended protocols may affect the recovery, growth, and/or function of the product. If an alternative medium formulation or reagent is used, the ATCC warranty for viability is no longer valid.  Except as expressly set forth herein, no other warranties of any kind are provided, express or implied, including, but not limited to, any implied warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, manufacture according to cGMP standards, typicality, safety, accuracy, and/or noninfringement.


This product is intended for laboratory research use only. It is not intended for any animal or human therapeutic use, any human or animal consumption, or any diagnostic use. Any proposed commercial use is prohibited without a license from ATCC.

While ATCC uses reasonable efforts to include accurate and up-to-date information on this product sheet, ATCC makes no warranties or representations as to its accuracy. Citations from scientific literature and patents are provided for informational purposes only. ATCC does not warrant that such information has been confirmed to be accurate or complete and the customer bears the sole responsibility of confirming the accuracy and completeness of any such information.

This product is sent on the condition that the customer is responsible for and assumes all risk and responsibility in connection with the receipt, handling, storage, disposal, and use of the ATCC product including without limitation taking all appropriate safety and handling precautions to minimize health or environmental risk. As a condition of receiving the material, the customer agrees that any activity undertaken with the ATCC product and any progeny or modifications will be conducted in compliance with all applicable laws, regulations, and guidelines. This product is provided 'AS IS' with no representations or warranties whatsoever except as expressly set forth herein and in no event shall ATCC, its parents, subsidiaries, directors, officers, agents, employees, assigns, successors, and affiliates be liable for indirect, special, incidental, or consequential damages of any kind in connection with or arising out of the customer's use of the product. While reasonable effort is made to ensure authenticity and reliability of materials on deposit, ATCC is not liable for damages arising from the misidentification or misrepresentation of such materials.

Please see the material transfer agreement (MTA) for further details regarding the use of this product. The MTA is available at

Permits & Restrictions

Import Permit for the State of Hawaii

If shipping to the U.S. state of Hawaii, you must provide either an import permit or documentation stating that an import permit is not required. We cannot ship this item until we receive this documentation. Contact the Hawaii Department of Agriculture (HDOA), Plant Industry Division, Plant Quarantine Branch to determine if an import permit is required.


Frequently Asked Questions


Curated Citations

Gunge N, et al. Isolation and characterization of linear deoxyribonucleic acid plasmids from Kluyveromyces lactis and the plasmid-associated killer character. J. Bacteriol. 145: 382-390, 1981. PubMed: 6257636

Wickerham LJ, Burton KA. Occurrence of yeast mating types in nature1,3. J. Bacteriol. 63: 449-451, 1952. PubMed: 14938317

Lacy LR, Dickson RC. Transcriptional regulation of the Kluyveromyces lactis beta- galactosidase gene. Mol. Cell. Biol. 1: 629-634, 1981. PubMed: 9279376

. . Biotechnol. Tech. 6: 289-292, 1992.

Schaffrath R, Meacock PA. Kluyveromyces lactis killer plasmid pGKL2: molecular analysis of an essential gene, ORF5. Yeast 11: 615-628, 1995. PubMed: 7483835

View All Curated Citations for this Product

Need assistance with this product? Contact our Technical Support team.


US and Puerto Rico

Outside the US

Hours of Operation

9:00am - 5:00pm
US Eastern Time