Acanthamoeba mauritaniensis Pussard and Pons
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ATCC highly recommends that appropriate personal protective equipment is always used when handling vials. For cultures that require storage in liquid nitrogen, it is important to note that some vials may leak when submersed in liquid nitrogen and will slowly fill with liquid nitrogen. Upon thawing, the conversion of the liquid nitrogen back to its gas phase may result in the vial exploding or blowing off its cap with dangerous force creating flying debris. Unless necessary, ATCC recommends that these cultures be stored in the vapor phase of liquid nitrogen rather than submersed in liquid nitrogen.
2. Remove an agar block (~5 mm2), with trophozoites or cysts, from the edge of an agar plate culture and invert the block at the edge of the freshly bacterized plate.
3. Wrap the entire edge of the plate with parafilm and incubate upright at 25°C.
4. Repeat steps 1-3 at 10-14 d intervals.
Note: a monoxenic amoeba culture can be established in this manner using any suitable bacterial food source.
1. Allow the cells to encyst. To detach cysts from the plate flush the surface with 5 ml fresh ATCC medium 1323 (Page's Balanced Salt Solution). Rub the surface of the plate with a spread bar to detach adhering cysts.
2. Transfer the liquid medium to a sterile centrifuge tube.
3. If the cyst concentration does not exceed 2 x 106 cysts/ml adjust the suspension to that concentration. To adjust the concentration, centrifuge at 600 x g for 5 min and resuspend the pellet in the volume of fresh medium required to yield 2 x 106.
4. While cells are centrifuging prepare a 15% (v/v) solution of sterile DMSO as follows: Add the required volume of DMSO to a glass screw-capped test tube and place it in an ice bath. Allow the DMSO to solidify. Add the required volume of refrigerated medium. Dissolve the DMSO by inverting the tube several times.
*NOTE: If the DMSO solution is not prepared on ice, an exothermic reaction will occur that may precipitate certain components of the medium.
5. Mix the cell preparation and the DMSO in equal portions. Thus, the final concentration will be at least 106 cysts/ml and 7.5% (v/v) DMSO. The equilibration time (the time between addition of DMSO and the start of the cooling cycle) should be no less than 15 min and no longer than 30 min.
6. Dispense in 0.5 ml aliquots into 1.0 - 2.0 ml sterile plastic screw-capped cryules (special plastic vials for cryopreservation).
7. Place the vials in a controlled rate freezing unit. From room temperature cool at -1°C/min to -40°C. If the freezing unit can compensate for the heat of fusion, maintain rate at -1°C/min through the heat of fusion. At -40°C plunge into liquid nitrogen. Alternatively, place the vials in a Nalgene 1°C freezing apparatus. Place the apparatus at -80°C for 1.5 to 2 hours and then plunge ampules into liquid nitrogen. (The cooling rate in this apparatus is approximately
8. The frozen preparations are stored in either the vapor or liquid phase of a nitrogen freezer.
9. To establish a culture from the frozen state place an ampule in a water bath set at 35°C (2-3 min). Immerse the vial to a level just above the surface of the frozen material. Do not agitate the vial.
10.Immediately after thawing, aseptically remove the contents of the ampule and distribute to the center of a fresh plate of ATCC medium 711. Distribute the material evenly over the plate using a spread bar. Incubate at 25°C.
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Niszl IA, et al. Cytopathogenicity of clinical and environmental Acanthamoeba isolates for two mammalian cell lines. J. Parasitol. 84: 961-967, 1998. PubMed: 9794638
Schroeder JM, et al. Use of subgenic 18s ribosomal dna pcr and sequencing for genus and genotype identification of acanthamoebae from humans with keratitis and from sewage sludge. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39: 1903-1911, 2001. PubMed: 11326011
Ledee DR, et al. Advantages of using mitochondrial 16S rDNA sequences to classify clinical isolates of Acanthamoeba. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44: 1142-1149, 2003. PubMed: 12601042