Thiothrix fructosivorans Howarth et al.


Product category
Product type
Strain designation
Type strain
Isolation source
Domestic wastewater activated sludge
Geographical isolation
United States; Pennsylvania; State College
Product format
Mission Collection Item
This is a Mission Collection Item


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ATCC highly recommends that appropriate personal protective equipment is always used when handling vials. For cultures that require storage in liquid nitrogen, it is important to note that some vials may leak when submersed in liquid nitrogen and will slowly fill with liquid nitrogen. Upon thawing, the conversion of the liquid nitrogen back to its gas phase may result in the vial exploding or blowing off its cap with dangerous force creating flying debris. Unless necessary, ATCC recommends that these cultures be stored in the vapor phase of liquid nitrogen rather than submersed in liquid nitrogen.

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Specific applications


Extremophile type
Sulfur oxidizer
Nutritional requirements

Handling information

Handling procedure
1. From a sterile stock supply of ATCC #1820 broth, aseptically transfer 10 ml to a sterile 125 ml flask.

2. Open the frozen vial and aseptically transfer the contents into the 125 ml flask.

3. Incubate flask at 10°C for 4-6 days and double the volume with the addition of 10 ml of 1820 medium. 

4. Once growth has been established transfer flask contents to 100 ml of #1820 broth contained in a 250 ml Erlenmeyer flask.  Incubate flask without shaking at 10°C.  Growth will be evident by the presence of a stringy flocculent which can take as little as 14 days or as long as 21 days to appear. 

5. Transfer to fresh medium at 2 month intervals.  A 5% inoculum (5ml of culture to 100 ml fresh medium) is recommended.

Handling notes
Growth on solid medium is sparse and can take 3 to 4 weeks.  Colonies are white and rhizoid in appearance.  Cells are long, thin, sheathed filaments entwined with one another and arranged in rosettes.  Cells can be preserved by freezing with a cryoprotectant but viability is poor and recovery from frozen stock is very slow.

          Additional information on this culture is available on the ATCC web site at


Deposited as
Thiothrix sp.
TM Williams
Type of isolate
Cross references
GenBank L79962 Thiothrix fructosivorans strain Q ribosomal RNA gene, complete sequence.
GenBank GU269554 Thiothrix fructosivorans strain Q 16S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence

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Intended use
This product is intended for laboratory research use only. It is not intended for any animal or human therapeutic use, any human or animal consumption, or any diagnostic use.

The product is provided 'AS IS' and the viability of ATCC® products is warranted for 30 days from the date of shipment, provided that the customer has stored and handled the product according to the information included on the product information sheet, website, and Certificate of Analysis. For living cultures, ATCC lists the media formulation and reagents that have been found to be effective for the product. While other unspecified media and reagents may also produce satisfactory results, a change in the ATCC and/or depositor-recommended protocols may affect the recovery, growth, and/or function of the product. If an alternative medium formulation or reagent is used, the ATCC warranty for viability is no longer valid.  Except as expressly set forth herein, no other warranties of any kind are provided, express or implied, including, but not limited to, any implied warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, manufacture according to cGMP standards, typicality, safety, accuracy, and/or noninfringement.


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Import Permit for the State of Hawaii

If shipping to the U.S. state of Hawaii, you must provide either an import permit or documentation stating that an import permit is not required. We cannot ship this item until we receive this documentation. Contact the Hawaii Department of Agriculture (HDOA), Plant Industry Division, Plant Quarantine Branch to determine if an import permit is required.



Curated Citations

Williams TM, Unz RF. Filamentous sulfur bacteria of activated sludge: characterization of Thiothrix, Beggiatoa, and Eikelboom type 021N strains. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 49: 887-898, 1985. PubMed: 4004221

. . Water Res. 23: 15-22, 1989.

Williams TM, et al. Ultrastructure of Thiothrix spp. and "type 021N" bacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53: 1560-1570, 1987.

Howarth R, et al. Phylogenetic relationships of filamentous sulfur bacteria (Thiothrix spp. and Eikelboom type 021N bacteria) isolated from wastewater-treatment plants and description of Thiothrix eikelboomii sp. nov., Thiothrix unzii sp. nov., Thiothrix fructosivorans sp. nov. and Thiothrix defluvii sp. nov.. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 49: 1817-1827, 1999. PubMed: 10555365

type strain

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