Giardia intestinalis (Lambl) Alexeieff


Product category
Product type
Parasitic protozoan
KINGDOM: Archeozoa
Strain designation
Type strain
Isolation source
Duodenal aspirate
Geographical isolation
United States; Maryland; Bethesda
Agricultural research
Enteric disease research
Infectious disease research
Product format
Storage conditions
-80°C or colder for 1 week, vapor phase of liquid nitrogen for long-term storage
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Biosafety Icon Biosafety Level 2

ATCC determines the biosafety level of a material based on our risk assessment as guided by the current edition of Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. It is your responsibility to understand the hazards associated with the material per your organization’s policies and procedures as well as any other applicable regulations as enforced by your local or national agencies.

ATCC highly recommends that appropriate personal protective equipment is always used when handling vials. For cultures that require storage in liquid nitrogen, it is important to note that some vials may leak when submersed in liquid nitrogen and will slowly fill with liquid nitrogen. Upon thawing, the conversion of the liquid nitrogen back to its gas phase may result in the vial exploding or blowing off its cap with dangerous force creating flying debris. Unless necessary, ATCC recommends that these cultures be stored in the vapor phase of liquid nitrogen rather than submersed in liquid nitrogen.

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Detailed product information


Specific applications
Enteric Research
Food and waterborne pathogen research


Localization of acid phosphatase activity
Substrate specificity of two cysteine proteinases
Sorting of cyst wall proteins
Regulation of secretory vesicle formation
Production of viable cysts
Small-intestinal factors promote encystation
Roles of bile, lactic acid, and pH in life cycle
Comparison of methods for excystation
Isoenzyme electrophoresis
Restriction-endonuclease analysis of DNA
Zymodemes and chromosomes of Giardia spp.
Isolation of gene coding for major surface protein
Presence and cellular distribution of a 60-KDA protein
Structure/phylogeny of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes
Excretory/secretory products
Heterogeneity in strain karyotypes
Susceptibility of domestic cats to infectious Giardia lamblia
Purine nucleoside and nucleobase cell membrane transport
Immunoelectron microscopy of cytoskeleton
Killing by cryptdins and cationic neutrophil peptides
Anti-giardial activity of gastrointestinal remedies
A lipoprotein-cholesterol-albumin serum substitute
killing by human milk
Characterization of isolates from a waterbrone outbreak
Mass cultivation
Comparative studies on encystation
The role of conjugated and unconjugated bile salts in killing by human milk
Cyst-specific antigens
Purine deoxynucleoside salvage
Biliary lipids for serum-free growth
Structure of a rRNA-encoding chromosomes
Drug sensitivity, toxin production, and host immune response
specific and common antigens
Infectivity of cryopreserved cysts
Inhibition of growth by difluoromethyl-ornithine
Characterization of antigens
Clones with distinct surface protein and antigenic profiles and differing infectivity and virulence
Axenic culture and characterization
Encystation-deficient subline
Ingestion by murine macrophages
species description

Handling information

Instruction for complete medium
Media: ATCC Medium 2695† (Quality controlled freeze-dried lots of this medium are commercially available as cat. no. PRA-2695)
†previously ATCC Medium 1404

Alternate Media: ATCC Medium 2155 (Quality controlled freeze-dried lots of
Culture system
Handling procedure
Storage and Culture Initiation
Frozen ampules packed in dry ice should either be thawed immediately or stored in liquid nitrogen. If liquid nitrogen storage facilities are not available, frozen ampules may be stored at or below -70°C for approximately one week. Do not under any circumstance store frozen ampules at refrigerator freezer temperatures (generally -20°C). Storage of frozen material at this temperature will result in the death of the culture.
  1. To thaw a frozen ampule, place it in a 35°C water bath , until thawed (2-3 min). Immerse the ampule just sufficient to cover the frozen material. Do not agitate the ampule.
  2. Immediately after thawing, aseptically transfer contents to a screw-capped test tube containing 13 mL ATCC Medium 2695. Incubate the tube on a 15° horizontal slant at 35°C.
Culture maintenance
  1. When the culture has reached or is near peak density, place the tubes on ice for 10 minutes.
  2. Gently invert the culture tube 10 times and aseptically transfer a 0.1-0.4 mL aliquot to a screw-capped test tube containing 13 mL ATCC Medium 2695.
  3. Incubate the culture on a 15° horizontal slant at 35°C.
  4. Transfer the culture every 3-4 days as described in steps 1-2. The transfer interval will depend on the size of the inoculum and the quality of the medium. This should be empirically determined by examining the culture on a daily basis until the growth cycle has stabilized. Do not allow the culture to overgrow. The culture crashes soon after reaching peak density.
  1. Harvest cells from a culture that is at or near peak density. To detach cells from the wall of the culture tubes place on ice for 10 minutes. Invert tubes several times until the majority of the cells are in suspension. Centrifuge tubes at 800 x g for 5 minutes.
  2. Adjust the concentration of cells to 2 x 107/mL in fresh medium.
  3. Before centrifuging prepare a 24% (v/v) solution of sterile DMSO in fresh medium containing 8% (w/v) sucrose. The solution is prepared as follows:
    1. Add 1.05 g sucrose to 10 mL of fresh medium and filter sterilize through a 0.2 µm filter;
    2. Add 2.4 mL of DMSO to an ice cold 20 x 150 mm screw-capped test tube;
    3. Place the tube on ice and allow the DMSO to solidify (~5 min) and then add 7.6 mL of ice cold medium prepared in step 3a. The final concentration will be 24% (v/v) DMSO and 8% (w/v) sucrose;
    4. Invert several times to dissolve the DMSO;
    5. Allow to warm to room temperature.
  4. Mix the cell preparation and the cryoprotective agent, prepared in step 3, in equal portions. Thus, the final concentration will equal 12% (v/v) DMSO + 4% sucrose (w/v) and 107 cells/mL. The time from the mixing of the cell preparation and DMSO stock solution to the start of the freezing process should be no less than 15 min and no longer than 30 min.
  5. Dispense in 0.5 mL aliquots into 1.0 - 2.0 mL sterile plastic screw-capped cryules (special plastic vials for cryopreservation).
  6. Place the vials in a controlled rate freezing unit. From room temperature cool at -1°C/min to -40°C. If the freezing unit can compensate for the heat of fusion, maintain rate at -1°C/min through the heat of fusion. At -40°C plunge into liquid nitrogen. Alternatively, place the vials in a Nalgene 1°C freezing apparatus. Place the apparatus at -80°C for 1.5 to 2 hours and then plunge ampules into liquid nitrogen. (The cooling rate in this apparatus is approximately -1°C/min.)
  7. The frozen preparations should be stored in either the vapor or liquid phase of a nitrogen refrigerator. Frozen preparations stored below -130°C are stabile indefinitely. Those stored at temperatures above -130°C are progressively less stabile as the storage temperature is elevated.
  8. To establish a culture from the frozen state place an ampule in a water bath set at 35°C. Immerse the vial just to a level just above the surface of the frozen material. Do not agitate the vial.
  9. Immediately after thawing, do not leave in the water bath, aseptically remove the contents of the ampule and inoculate a 16 x 125 mm screw-capped test tube containing 13 mL ATCC Medium 2695.
  10. Incubate the culture on a 15º horizontal slant at 35°C.


Deposited as
Giardia lamblia (Lambl) Stiles
FD Gillin
Type of isolate
Year of origin
Patient age
30 years
Patient gender
Cross references
GenBank U24238 Giardia lamblia (ENC1) mRNA, complete cds.
GenBank U24239 Giardia lamblia (ENC6) mRNA, complete cds.
GenBank U42428 Giardia lamblia caltractin (CAL) gene, complete cds.
GenBank AF067402 DNA polymerase alpha gene sequence, partial coding sequence
GenBank U19901 Giardia lamblia putative adenylate kinase gene, complete cds.
GenBank U10907 Giardia lamblia WB putative surface antigen gene, partial cds.
GenBank X60427 G.lamblia telomere DNA containing truncated rRNA large subunit gene.
GenBank M63966 Giardia lamblia variant-specific surface protein 1267 (vsp1267) gene, complete cds.
GenBank AF005078 translation initiation factor 2 gamma subunit, eIF-2 gamma gene, partial coding sequence
GenBank U12337 Giardia lamblia WB inorganic pyrophosphate-linked phosphofructokinase (GLPFK) gene, complete cds.

Legal disclaimers

Intended use
This product is intended for laboratory research use only. It is not intended for any animal or human therapeutic use, any human or animal consumption, or any diagnostic use.

The product is provided 'AS IS' and the viability of ATCC® products is warranted for 30 days from the date of shipment, provided that the customer has stored and handled the product according to the information included on the product information sheet, website, and Certificate of Analysis. For living cultures, ATCC lists the media formulation and reagents that have been found to be effective for the product. While other unspecified media and reagents may also produce satisfactory results, a change in the ATCC and/or depositor-recommended protocols may affect the recovery, growth, and/or function of the product. If an alternative medium formulation or reagent is used, the ATCC warranty for viability is no longer valid.  Except as expressly set forth herein, no other warranties of any kind are provided, express or implied, including, but not limited to, any implied warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, manufacture according to cGMP standards, typicality, safety, accuracy, and/or noninfringement.


This product is intended for laboratory research use only. It is not intended for any animal or human therapeutic use, any human or animal consumption, or any diagnostic use. Any proposed commercial use is prohibited without a license from ATCC.

While ATCC uses reasonable efforts to include accurate and up-to-date information on this product sheet, ATCC makes no warranties or representations as to its accuracy. Citations from scientific literature and patents are provided for informational purposes only. ATCC does not warrant that such information has been confirmed to be accurate or complete and the customer bears the sole responsibility of confirming the accuracy and completeness of any such information.

This product is sent on the condition that the customer is responsible for and assumes all risk and responsibility in connection with the receipt, handling, storage, disposal, and use of the ATCC product including without limitation taking all appropriate safety and handling precautions to minimize health or environmental risk. As a condition of receiving the material, the customer agrees that any activity undertaken with the ATCC product and any progeny or modifications will be conducted in compliance with all applicable laws, regulations, and guidelines. This product is provided 'AS IS' with no representations or warranties whatsoever except as expressly set forth herein and in no event shall ATCC, its parents, subsidiaries, directors, officers, agents, employees, assigns, successors, and affiliates be liable for indirect, special, incidental, or consequential damages of any kind in connection with or arising out of the customer's use of the product. While reasonable effort is made to ensure authenticity and reliability of materials on deposit, ATCC is not liable for damages arising from the misidentification or misrepresentation of such materials.

Please see the material transfer agreement (MTA) for further details regarding the use of this product. The MTA is available at

Permits & Restrictions

Import Permit for the State of Hawaii

If shipping to the U.S. state of Hawaii, you must provide either an import permit or documentation stating that an import permit is not required. We cannot ship this item until we receive this documentation. Contact the Hawaii Department of Agriculture (HDOA), Plant Industry Division, Plant Quarantine Branch to determine if an import permit is required.



Curated Citations

Schupp DG, et al. Production of viable Giardia cysts in vitro: determination by fluorogenic dye staining, excystation, and animal infectivity in the mouse and Mongolian gerbil. Gastroenterology 95: 1-10, 1988. PubMed: 3286359

Abaza SM, et al. Isoenzyme profiles of four strains of Giardia lamblia and their infectivity to jirds. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 44: 63-68, 1991. PubMed: 1996742

Gillin FD, et al. Small-intestinal factors promote encystation of Giardia lamblia in vitro. Infect. Immun. 56: 705-707, 1988. PubMed: 3343054

Nash TE, et al. Restriction-endonuclease analysis of DNA from 15 Giardia isolates obtained from humans and animals. J. Infect. Dis. 152: 64-73, 1985. PubMed: 2409186

van Keulen H, et al. Cloning and restriction enzyme mapping of ribosomal DNA of Giardia duodenalis, Giardia ardeae and Giardia muris. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 46: 275-284, 1991. PubMed: 1922199

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