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Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica bacteriophage Chi

9842-B1

Product category
Viruses
Product type
Bacteriophage
Strain designation
Chi
Type strain
No
Product format
Freeze-dried
Storage conditions
2°C to 8°C
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Biosafety Icon BSL 1

ATCC determines the biosafety level of a material based on our risk assessment as guided by the current edition of Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. It is your responsibility to understand the hazards associated with the material per your organization’s policies and procedures as well as any other applicable regulations as enforced by your local or national agencies.

ATCC highly recommends that appropriate personal protective equipment is always used when handling vials. For cultures that require storage in liquid nitrogen, it is important to note that some vials may leak when submersed in liquid nitrogen and will slowly fill with liquid nitrogen. Upon thawing, the conversion of the liquid nitrogen back to its gas phase may result in the vial exploding or blowing off its cap with dangerous force creating flying debris. Unless necessary, ATCC recommends that these cultures be stored in the vapor phase of liquid nitrogen rather than submersed in liquid nitrogen.

Required Products

These products are vital for the proper use of this item and have been confirmed as effective in supporting functionality. If you use alternative products, the quality and effectiveness of the item may be affected.

Detailed product information

General

Preceptrol
No

Handling information

Host
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Bispebjerg ETS 26 (ATCC 9842)
Medium
Temperature
37°C
Atmosphere
Aerobic
Handling procedure
  1. Follow general procedures given below for phage propagation.
  2. Use Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Bispebjerg (ATCC 9842) as host. 

GENERAL PROCEDURES FOR THE PROPAGATION OF BACTERIOPHAGE

To recover phage from freeze-dried or frozen vial:

  1. Prepare an actively growing broth culture of the recommended host strain before opening the phage specimen. The host should be 18-24 hours old. 
  2. Pre-warm plates of the recommended medium in an incubator. Overlay the surface with 2.5 mL of the melted 0.5% soft agar (same medium) that contains one or two drops of the freshly grown host. The soft agar should be maintained at 43°C to 45°C  until ready to pour. It may be advisable to use a warm bath. Allow overlay to harden. 
  3. The phage can be serially diluted by passing 0.25 mL of the phage into a tube containing 2.25 mL of the broth medium. Repeat for as many passages as desired. 
  4. Spot 0.1 mL of each dilution on the surface of the prepared plates. Allow to dry for approximately 15-30 minutes. Three to four dilutions can be placed on each plate. After 24 hours incubation, lysis should be visible. At the higher dilutions, individual plaques should be countable. 
    NOTE: Spotting the phage on plates makes visualizing the lysis easier. If the phage is  added directly to soft agar before pouring plates, hazy or tiny plaques may be difficult to see. Resistant host bacteria may also mask plaque formation.

To propagate phage:

  1. Phage may be propagated by preparing plates with soft agar/host overlay as above and covering the surface with approximately 0.5 mL of the concentrated phage. Or, alternately, you may add the phage directly to the melted agar/host before pouring over the plates. For large amounts, large-size T-flasks can be prepared with the recommended agar, and approximately 12.0 mL of melted soft agar/host poured over the surface.  Phage is then allowed to run over hardened surface. Phage may also be added directly to melted soft agar before pouring as described above.
  2. After 24 hours incubation, or when lysis is observed, the soft agar is scrapped off the surface of the agar plates. Centrifuge at about 1000 rpm for 25 minutes to sediment the cellular debris and agar. Conserve the supernatant. 
  3. This supernatant is passed through a .22  μm Millipore filter and the filtrate stored at 4-8°C. Lysates should remain viable under refrigeration for long periods. They may also be frozen with or without cryoprotectant. If available, liquid nitrogen storage is the best method for long term storage. Most phage can also be freeze-dried. We use double-strength skim milk mixed half- and -half with the filtrate.
    NOTE: Broth propagation methods may also be employed with most phage. Unless otherwise noted, ATCC uses the Adams agar-overlay methods as described in M.H. Adams' Bacteriophage (Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York, 1959) for routine phage.
Handling notes
Additional information on this culture is available on the ATCC web site at www.atcc.org.

History

Deposited as
chi
Depositors
EW Meynell
Chain of custody
ATCC <-- EW Meynell <-- J. Lederberg <-- Lister Inst. London <-- N.A. Boulgakov

Legal disclaimers

Intended use
This product is intended for laboratory research use only. It is not intended for any animal or human therapeutic use, any human or animal consumption, or any diagnostic use.
Warranty

The product is provided 'AS IS' and the viability of ATCC® products is warranted for 30 days from the date of shipment, provided that the customer has stored and handled the product according to the information included on the product information sheet, website, and Certificate of Analysis. For living cultures, ATCC lists the media formulation and reagents that have been found to be effective for the product. While other unspecified media and reagents may also produce satisfactory results, a change in the ATCC and/or depositor-recommended protocols may affect the recovery, growth, and/or function of the product. If an alternative medium formulation or reagent is used, the ATCC warranty for viability is no longer valid.  Except as expressly set forth herein, no other warranties of any kind are provided, express or implied, including, but not limited to, any implied warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, manufacture according to cGMP standards, typicality, safety, accuracy, and/or noninfringement.

Disclaimers

This product is intended for laboratory research use only. It is not intended for any animal or human therapeutic use, any human or animal consumption, or any diagnostic use. Any proposed commercial use is prohibited without a license from ATCC.

While ATCC uses reasonable efforts to include accurate and up-to-date information on this product sheet, ATCC makes no warranties or representations as to its accuracy. Citations from scientific literature and patents are provided for informational purposes only. ATCC does not warrant that such information has been confirmed to be accurate or complete and the customer bears the sole responsibility of confirming the accuracy and completeness of any such information.

This product is sent on the condition that the customer is responsible for and assumes all risk and responsibility in connection with the receipt, handling, storage, disposal, and use of the ATCC product including without limitation taking all appropriate safety and handling precautions to minimize health or environmental risk. As a condition of receiving the material, the customer agrees that any activity undertaken with the ATCC product and any progeny or modifications will be conducted in compliance with all applicable laws, regulations, and guidelines. This product is provided 'AS IS' with no representations or warranties whatsoever except as expressly set forth herein and in no event shall ATCC, its parents, subsidiaries, directors, officers, agents, employees, assigns, successors, and affiliates be liable for indirect, special, incidental, or consequential damages of any kind in connection with or arising out of the customer's use of the product. While reasonable effort is made to ensure authenticity and reliability of materials on deposit, ATCC is not liable for damages arising from the misidentification or misrepresentation of such materials.

Please see the material transfer agreement (MTA) for further details regarding the use of this product. The MTA is available at www.atcc.org.

Permits & Restrictions

Import Permit for the State of Hawaii

If shipping to the U.S. state of Hawaii, you must provide either an import permit or documentation stating that an import permit is not required. We cannot ship this item until we receive this documentation. Contact the Hawaii Department of Agriculture (HDOA), Plant Industry Division, Plant Quarantine Branch to determine if an import permit is required.

MORE INFORMATION ABOUT PERMITS AND RESTRICTIONS

References

Curated Citations

Meynell EW. A phage, phi chi, which attacks motile bacteria. J. Gen. Microbiol. 25: 253-290, 1961. PubMed: 13770074

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