Acanthamoeba rhysodes (Singh) Singh and Hanumaiah
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ATCC highly recommends that appropriate personal protective equipment is always used when handling vials. For cultures that require storage in liquid nitrogen, it is important to note that some vials may leak when submersed in liquid nitrogen and will slowly fill with liquid nitrogen. Upon thawing, the conversion of the liquid nitrogen back to its gas phase may result in the vial exploding or blowing off its cap with dangerous force creating flying debris. Unless necessary, ATCC recommends that these cultures be stored in the vapor phase of liquid nitrogen rather than submersed in liquid nitrogen.
2. Transfer approximately 0.25 ml to a fresh tube or flask containing 5 ml of fresh ATCC medium 712.
3. Screw the caps on tightly and incubate at 25°C (incubate test tubes at a 15° horizontal slant).
4. The amoebae will form an almost continuous sheet of cells on the bottom surface of the flask or test tube. Repeat steps 1-3 at 10-14 d intervals.
1. To achieve the best results set up cultures with several different inocula (e.g. 0.25 ml, 0.5 ml, 1.0 ml). Harvest cultures and pool when the culture that received the lowest inoculum is at or near peak density.
2. If the cell concentration exceeds the required level do not centrifuge, but adjust the concentration to between 2 x 106 and 2 x 107cysts/ml with fresh medium. If the concentration is too low, centrifuge at 600 x g for 5 min and resuspend the pellet in the volume of fresh medium required to yield the desired concentration.
3. While cells are centrifuging prepare a 15% (v/v) solution of sterile DMSO as follows: Add the required volume of DMSO to a glass screw-capped test tube and place it in an ice bath. Allow the DMSO to solidify. Add the required volume of refrigerated medium. Dissolve the DMSO by inverting the tube several times.
*NOTE: If the DMSO solution is not prepared on ice, an exothermic reaction will occur that may precipitate certain components of the medium.
4. Mix the cell preparation and the DMSO in equal portions. Thus, the final concentration will be between 106 and 107 cells/ml and 7.5% (v/v) DMSO. The time from the mixing of the cell preparation and DMSO stock solution before the freezing process is begun should be no less than 15 min and no longer than 30 min.
5. Dispense in 0.5 ml aliquots into 1.0 - 2.0 ml sterile plastic screw-capped cryules (special plastic vials for cryopreservation).
6. Place the vials in a controlled rate freezing unit. From room temperature cool at -1°C/min to -40°C. If the freezing unit can compensate for the heat of fusion, maintain rate at -1°C/min through the heat of fusion. At -40°C plunge into liquid nitrogen. Alternatively, place the vials in a Nalgene 1°C freezing apparatus. Place the apparatus at -80°C for 1.5 to 2 hours and then plunge ampules into liquid nitrogen. (The cooling rate in this apparatus is approximately
7. The frozen preparations are stored in either the vapor or liquid phase of a nitrogen freezer.
8. To establish a culture from the frozen state place an ampule in a water bath set at 35°C (2-3 min). Immerse the vial just sufficient to cover the frozen material. Do not agitate the vial.
9. Immediately after thawing, aseptically remove the contents of the ampule and inoculate into 5 ml of fresh ATCC medium 712 in a T-25 tissue culture flask or plastic 16 x 125 mm screw-capped test tube. Incubate at 25°C.
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Gast RJ, et al. Subgenus systematics of Acanthamoeba: Four nuclear 18S rDNA sequence types. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 43: 498-504, 1996. PubMed: 8976608
Stothard DR, et al. The evolutionary history of the genus Acanthamoeba and the identification of eight new 18S rRNA gene sequence types. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 45: 45-54, 1998. PubMed: 9495032
Ledee DR, et al. Advantages of using mitochondrial 16S rDNA sequences to classify clinical isolates of Acanthamoeba. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44: 1142-1149, 2003. PubMed: 12601042