Yellow fever virus (YFV) belongs to the genus Flavivirus and is found in tropical and subtropical areas in South America and Africa. It is related to other viruses such as dengue and West Nile viruses. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected mosquito. Illness ranges in severity from a self-limited febrile illness to severe liver disease with bleeding. Yellow fever disease is diagnosed based on symptoms, physical findings, laboratory testing, and travel history, including the possibility of exposure to infected mosquitoes. There is no specific treatment for yellow fever; care is based on symptoms but includes rest, fluids, and use of pain relievers and medication to reduce fever. Steps to prevent yellow fever virus infection include using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, using mosquito nets, and getting vaccinated.
Yellow Fever Surveillance Kit
The YF MAC-HD is a qualitative assay based on the in-house YF MAC-ELISA method developed by CDC that detects IgM to yellow fever virus. The YF MAC-HD uses anti-human IgM to capture IgM in human serum. If IgM reactive to yellow fever is present, this reacts with non-infectious yellow fever whole virus antigen, which is detected using a horseradish peroxidase-conjugated flavivirus group-reactive monoclonal antibody, and a measurable colorimetric reaction is produced using a 3,3’,5,5’-tetramethylbenzidine substrate. The assay has been adapted to a kit format with a faster completion time and incorporates stability and ease-of-use making it convenient in a wide variety of laboratory settings. The protocol to resolve equivocal results is included in the instruction for use.
The YF MAC-HD is for research use only (RUO) and is intended for use in the detection of anti-yellow fever virus IgM in human serum. It should be used in a laboratory setting by trained laboratory personnel. The results of this assay are qualitative and should be used in the context of laboratory surveillance for yellow fever. Results should be confirmed according to applicable laboratory guidelines. The assay has not been validated for clinical purposes (i.e., the diagnosis of yellow fever disease).
Download the Workbook and Protocol
YF MAC-HD Calculations Workbook
Use the Excel workbook to perform automated calculations. Follow the directions on the "Instructions" tab.
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