Tritrichomonas foetus (Riedmuller) Wenrich and Emerson (ATCC® 30924)

Strain Designations: KV-1  /  Depositor: BM Honigberg, J Kulda  /  Biosafety Level: 2

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Strain Designations KV-1
produces glucokinase
produces ketohexokinase fructokinase
Biosafety Level 2

Biosafety classification is based on U.S. Public Health Service Guidelines, it is the responsibility of the customer to ensure that their facilities comply with biosafety regulations for their own country.

Isolation Naturally infected Bos taurus, Zalamov, Czechoslovakia, 1962
Product Format frozen
Storage Conditions Frozen Cultures:
-70°C for 1 week; liquid N2 vapor for long term storage

Freeze-dried Cultures:

Live Cultures:
See Protocols section for handling information
Type Strain no
Antibiotic Resistance
Metronidazole resistant activities of hydrogenosomal enzymes
Phylogeny based upon superoxide dismutase gene sequence analysis
Glucokinase and fructokinase
Fatty acid and sterol metabolism
phospholipid metabolism
Behavior and pathogenicity
Tubulin subunits and phylogeny
Metronidazole resistant activities of hydrogenosomal enzymes
Subcellular localization of enzymes of the arginine dihydrolase pathway
Fructose-2,6-bisphosphate-insensitive pyrophosphate:fructose-6-phosphate phosphotransferase
Medium ATCC® Medium 2154: LYI Entamoeba medium
ATCC® Medium 359: Modified TYM basal medium (ATCC medium 358) with pH adjusted to 7.2 and 0.2-0.5 ml of heat-inactivated horse serum added per tube before use
Growth Conditions
Temperature: 35°C
Culture System: Axenic
Protocol: at pH 7.0
Cryopreservation Harvest and Preservation
  1. Harvest cells from a culture that is at or near peak density by centrifugation at 800 x g for 5 min. When cells grown in a medium containing agar are concentrated by centrifugation, a solid pellet does not form. The soft pellet is resuspended to desired cell concentration with agar-free supernatant.
  2. Adjust the concentration of cells to 2 x 106 - 2 x 107/mL in fresh medium.
  3. While cells are centrifuging prepare a 10% (v/v) solution of sterile DMSO in fresh medium.
    1. Add 1.0 mL of DMSO to an ice cold 20 x 150 mm screw-capped test tube;
    2. Place the tube on ice and allow the DMSO to solidify (~5 min) and then add 9.0 mL of ice cold medium;
    3. Invert several times to dissolve the DMSO;
    4. Allow to warm to room temperature.
  1. Mix the cell preparation and the DMSO in equal portions. Thus, the final concentration will be 106 - 107 cells/mL and 5% (v/v) DMSO. The time from the mixing of the cell preparation and DMSO stock solution before the freezing process is begun should no less than 15 min and no longer than 30 min.
  2. Dispense in 0.5 mL aliquots into 1.0 - 2.0 mL sterile plastic screw-capped cryules (special plastic vials for cryopreservation).
  3. Place the vials in a controlled rate freezing unit.  From room temperature cool at -1°C/min to -40°C.  If the freezing unit can compensate for the heat of fusion, maintain rate at -1°C/min through the heat of fusion.  At -40°C plunge into liquid nitrogen. Alternatively, place the vials in a Nalgene 1°C freezing apparatus.  Place the apparatus at -80°C for 1.5 to 2 hours and then plunge ampules into liquid nitrogen.  (The cooling rate in this apparatus is approximately -1°C/min.)  
  4. The frozen preparations should be stored in either the vapor or liquid phase of a nitrogen refrigerator. Frozen preparations stored below -130°C are stabile indefinitely. Those stored at temperatures above -130°C are progressively less stabile as the storage temperature is elevated. Vials should not be stored above -55°C.
  5. To establish a culture from the frozen state place an ampule in a water bath set at 35°C. Immerse the vial just to a level just above the surface of the frozen material. Do not agitate the vial.
  6. Immediately after thawing, do not leave in the water bath, aseptically remove the contents of the ampule and inoculate a 16 x 125 mm screw-capped test tube containing either 9 mL of ATCC medium 359 (completed with serum) or 13 mL ATCC Medium 2154.
  7. Incubate the culture at 35°C with the cap screwed on tightly (tube should be vertical for medium 359 or on a 15° horizontal slant for medium 2154).
Name of Depositor BM Honigberg, J Kulda
Chain of Custody
ATCC <-- BM Honigberg, J Kulda <-- E. Lipova
Year of Origin 1962

Beach DH, et al. Phospholipid metabolism of cultured Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 44: 97-108, 1991. PubMed: 2011157

Beach DH, et al. Fatty acid and sterol metabolism of cultured Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 38: 175-190, 1990. PubMed: 2325705

Kulda J, Honigberg BM. Behavior and pathogenicity of Tritrichomonas foetus in chick liver cell cultures. J. Protozool. 16: 479-495, 1969. PubMed: 5343462

Mertens E, Muller M. Glucokinase and fructokinase of Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus. J. Protozool. 37: 384-388, 1990. PubMed: 2213652

Gunderson J, et al. Phylogeny of trichomonads inferred from small-subunit rRNA sequences. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 42: 411-415, 1995. PubMed: 7620466

Delgado-Viscogliosi P, et al. Electrophoretic mobility of tubulin subunits as a criterion for testing relationships between trichomonad taxa. Arch. Protistenkd. 146: 191-200, 1995.

Ashton DH. Metronidazole resistant tritrichomonas foetus activities of hydrogenosomal enzymes in course of development of anaerobic resistance. Acta Univ. Carol. Biol. 30: 513-519, 1986.

Yarlett N, et al. Subcellular localization of the enzymes of the arginine dihydrolase pathway in Trichomonas vaginalis and Trtrichomonas foetus. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 41: 554-559, 1994. PubMed: 7866382

Mertens E, et al. Presence of a fructose-2,6-bisphosphate-insensitive pyrophosphate: fructose-6-phosphate phosphotransferase in the anaerobic protozoa Tritrichomonas foetus, Trichomonas vaginalis and Isotricha prostoma. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 37: 183-190, 1989. PubMed: 2558319

Viscogliosi E, et al. Phylogenetic implication of iron-containing superoxide dismutase genes from trichomonad species. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 80: 209-214, 1996. PubMed: 8892298

Felleisen RS. Comparative genetic analysis of tritrichomonadid protozoa by the random amplified polymorphic DNA technique. Parasitol. Res. 84: 153-156, 1998. PubMed: 9493217

Felleisen RS. Comparative sequence analysis of 5.8S rRNA genes and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of trichomonadid protozoa. Parasitology 115: 111-119, 1997. PubMed: 10190167

Vanacova S, et al. Characterization of Trichomonad species and strains by PCR fingerprinting. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 44: 545-552, 1997. PubMed: 9435127

Viscogliosi E, Mueller M. Phylogenetic relationships of the glycolytic enzyme, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, from parabasalid flagellates. J. Mol. Evol. 47: 190-199, 1998. PubMed: 9694668

Brugerolle G, et al. Centrin protein and genes in Trichomonas vaginalis and close relatives. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 47: 129-138, 2000. PubMed: 10750840

Mattos A, et al. Fine structure and isozymic characterization of trichomonadid protozoa. Parasitol. Res. 83: 290-295, 1997. PubMed: 9089728

Bouma MJ, et al. Activity of disulfiram (bis(diethylthiocarbamoyl)disulphide) and ditiocarb (diethyldithiocarbamate) against metronidazole-sensitive and -resistant Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 42: 817-820, 1998. PubMed: 10052908

Tachezy J, et al. Cattle pathogen Tritrichomonas foetus (Riedmuller, 1928) and pig commensal Tritrichomonas suis (Gruby & Delafond, 1843) belong to the same species. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 49: 154-163, 2002. PubMed: 12046599

Gerbod D, et al. Phylogenetic relationships of class II fumarase genes from trichomonad species. Mol. Biol. Evol. 18: 1574-1584, 2001. PubMed: 11470849

Land KM, et al. Loss of multiple hydrogenosomal proteins associated with organelle metabolism and high-level drug resistance in trichomonads. Exp. Parasitol. 97: 102-110, 2001. PubMed: 11281707

Brugerolle G, et al. Immunolocalization of two hydrogenosomal enzymes of Trichomonas vaginalis. Parasitol. Res. 86: 30-35, 2000. PubMed: 10669133

Singh BN, et al. Immunological and biochemical analysis of glycosylated surface antigens and lipophosphoglycan of Tritrichomonas foetus. J. Parasitol. 87: 770-777, 2001. PubMed: 11534640

Land KM, et al. In vivo expression of ferredoxin in a drug resistant trichomonad increases metronidazole susceptibility. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 121: 153-157, 2002. PubMed: 11985873

Cross References

Nucleotide (GenBank) : Z70668 T.foetus sod1 gene.

Nucleotide (GenBank) : Z70669 T.foetus sod2 gene.

Nucleotide (GenBank) : AJ249457 mRNA for centrin (ce1 gene)

Nucleotide (GenBank) : U17509 Tritrichomonas foetus 16S-like rRNA gene

Nucleotide (GenBank) : AF307994 Tritrichomonas foetus cytosolic malate dehydrogenase 1 (MDH1) mRNA, partial cds

Nucleotide (GenBank) : AF307995 Tritrichomonas foetus cytosolic malate dehydrogenase 2 (MDH2) mRNA, partial cds

Nucleotide (GenBank) : AF022415 Tritrichomonas foetus glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gap1) gene, partial cds.

Nucleotide (GenBank) : AF022416 Tritrichomonas foetus glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gap2) gene, partial cds.

Nucleotide (GenBank) : AF312935 Tritrichomonas foetus ferredoxin mRNA, partial cds; nuclear gene for hydrogenosomal protein

Nucleotide (GenBank) : AF312932 Tritrichomonas foetus hydrogenase mRNA, complete cds; nuclear gene for hydrogenosomal protein

Nucleotide (GenBank) : AF312933 Tritrichomonas foetus malic enzyme mRNA, partial cds; nuclear gene for hydrogenosomal protein

Nucleotide (GenBank) : AF312931 Tritrichomonas foetus succinyl CoA synthetase beta subunit; nuclear gene for hydrogenosomal protein

Nucleotide (GenBank) : AF312930 Tritrichomonas foetus ATP/ADP carrier mRNA, partial sequence; nuclear gene for hydrogenosomal protein

Nucleotide (GenBank) : L08622 Tritrichomonas foetus hypoxanthine-guanine-xanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (hpt) gene, complete cds.

Nucleotide (GenBank) : AF312934 Tritrichomonas foetus pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, partial sequence; nuclear gene for hydrogenosomal

Nucleotide (GenBank) : AF312929 Tritrichomonas foetus succinyl CoA synthetase alpha subunit mRNA, partial cds; nuclear gene for hydrogenosomal protein

Notice: Necessary PermitsPermits

These permits may be required for shipping this product:

  • USDA APHIS VS 16-6 or 16-6A permit must be obtained and a copy of the permit must be sent to ATCC in advance of shipment. The Application Form VS 16-3 (Import controlled material import or transport organisms or vectors) must be submitted to USDA APHIS Veterinary Services to obtain the VS 16-6 or 16-6A permit.
  • Customer Acceptance of Responsibility, ATCC Form 62 required for distribution.
  • Customers located in the state of Hawaii will need to contact the Hawaii Department of Agriculture to determine if an Import Permit is required. A copy of the permit or documentation that a permit is not required must be sent to ATCC in advance of shipment.
Basic Documentation