Lange B, et al. Growth factor requirements of childhood acute leukemia: establishment of GM-CSF-dependent cell lines. Blood 70: 192-199, 1987. PubMed: 3496132
Santoli D, et al. Synergistic and antagonistic effects of recombinant human interleukin (IL) 3, IL-1 alpha, granulocyte and macrophage colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF and M-CSF) on the growth of GM-CSF-dependent leukemic cell lines. J. Immunol. 139: 3348-3354, 1987. PubMed: 3500218
If the cells are maintained in a serum-free medium, it is necessary to add the following: 0.005 mg/ml transferrin, 0.005 mg/ml insulin, and 5 ng/ml GM-CSF.