Giardia intestinalis (Lambl) Alexeieff (ATCC® 30957)

Organism: Giardia intestinalis (Lambl) Alexeieff  /  Depositor: FD Gillin

Deposited As Giardia lamblia (Lambl) Stiles
Strain Designations WB
Enteric Research
Food and waterborne pathogen research
Biosafety Level 2
Isolation Duodenal aspirate, 30-year-old human male, Bethesda, MD, 1979
Product Format frozen
Storage Conditions Frozen: -70°C or colder
Freeze-Dried: 2°C to 8°C
Live Culture: See Protocols Section
Type Strain no
Localization of acid phosphatase activity
Substrate specificity of two cysteine proteinases
Sorting of cyst wall proteins
Regulation of secretory vesicle formation
Production of viable cysts
Small-intestinal factors promote encystation
Roles of bile, lactic acid, and pH in life cycle
Comparison of methods for excystation
Isoenzyme electrophoresis
Restriction-endonuclease analysis of DNA
Zymodemes and chromosomes of Giardia spp.
Isolation of gene coding for major surface protein
Presence and cellular distribution of a 60-KDA protein
Structure/phylogeny of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes
Excretory/secretory products
Heterogeneity in strain karyotypes
Susceptibility of domestic cats to infectious Giardia lamblia
Purine nucleoside and nucleobase cell membrane transport
Immunoelectron microscopy of cytoskeleton
Killing by cryptdins and cationic neutrophil peptides
Anti-giardial activity of gastrointestinal remedies
A lipoprotein-cholesterol-albumin serum substitute
killing by human milk
Characterization of isolates from a waterbrone outbreak
Mass cultivation
Comparative studies on encystation
The role of conjugated and unconjugated bile salts in killing by human milk
Cyst-specific antigens
Purine deoxynucleoside salvage
Biliary lipids for serum-free growth
Structure of a rRNA-encoding chromosomes
Drug sensitivity, toxin production, and host immune response
specific and common antigens
Infectivity of cryopreserved cysts
Inhibition of growth by difluoromethyl-ornithine
Characterization of antigens
Clones with distinct surface protein and antigenic profiles and differing infectivity and virulence
Axenic culture and characterization
Encystation-deficient subline
Ingestion by murine macrophages
species description
Medium Medium 2695: Keister's Modified TYI-S-33
Growth Conditions
Temperature: 35°C
Atmosphere: Anaerobic
Culture System: Axenic
Cryopreservation Harvest and Preservation
  1. Harvest cells from a culture that is at or near peak density. To detach cells from the wall of the culture tubes place on ice for 10 minutes.  Invert tubes several times until the majority of the cells are in suspension.  Centrifuge tubes at 800 x g for 5 minutes. 
  2. Adjust the concentration of cells to 2 x 107/mL in fresh medium.
  3. Before centrifuging prepare a 24% (v/v) solution of sterile DMSO in fresh medium containing 8% (w/v) sucrose.  The solution is prepared as follows:
    1. Add 10.5 g sucrose to 10 mL of fresh medium and filter sterilize through a 0.2 mm filter;
    2. Add 2.4 mL of DMSO to an ice cold 20 x 150 mm screw-capped test tube;
    3. Place the tube on ice and allow the DMSO to solidify (~5 min) and then add 7.6 mL of ice cold medium prepared in step 3a.  The final concentration will be 24% (v/v) DMSO and 8% (w/v) sucrose;
    4. Invert several times to dissolve the DMSO;
    5. Allow to warm to room temperature.
  4. Mix the cell preparation and the cryoprotective agent, prepared in step 3, in equal portions. Thus, the final concentration will equal 12% (v/v) DMSO + 4% sucrose (w/v) and 107 cells/mL. The time from the mixing of the cell preparation and DMSO stock solution before the freezing process is begun should be no less than 15 min and no longer than 30 min.
  5. Dispense in 0.5 mL aliquots into 1.0 - 2.0 mL sterile plastic screw-capped cryules (special plastic vials for cryopreservation).
  6. Place the vials in a controlled rate freezing unit.  From room temperature cool at -1°C/min to -40°C.  If the freezing unit can compensate for the heat of fusion, maintain rate at -1°C/min through the heat of fusion.  At -40°C plunge into liquid nitrogen. Alternatively, place the vials in a Nalgene 1°C freezing apparatus.  Place the apparatus at -80°C for 1.5 to 2 hours and then plunge ampules into liquid nitrogen.  (The cooling rate in this apparatus is approximately -1°C/min.)  
  7. The frozen preparations should be stored in either the vapor or liquid phase of a nitrogen refrigerator. Frozen preparations stored below -130°C are stabile indefinitely. Those stored at temperatures above -130°C are progressively less stabile as the storage temperature is elevated.
  8. To establish a culture from the frozen state place an ampule in a water bath set at 35°C. Immerse the vial just to a level just above the surface of the frozen material. Do not agitate the vial.
  9. Immediately after thawing, do not leave in the water bath, aseptically remove the contents of the ampule and inoculate a 16 x 125 mm screw-capped test tube containing 13 mL ATCC Medium 2695.
  10. Incubate the culture on a 15° horizontal slant at 35°C.
Name of Depositor FD Gillin
Year of Origin 1979

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McCabe RE, et al. In vitro model of attachment of Giardia intestinalis trophozoites to EIC-6 cells, an intestinal cell line. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 35: 29-35, 1991. PubMed: 1901700

Bell CA, et al. Structure-activity relationships of pentamidine analogs against Giardia lamblia and correlation of antigardial activity with DNA-building affinity. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 35: 1099-1107, 1991. PubMed: 1929249

Gillin FD, et al. Human milk kills parasitic intestinal protozoa. Science 221: 1290-1292, 1983. PubMed: 6310751

Wieder SC, et al. Mass cultivation of Giardia lamblia in a serum-free medium. J. Parasitol. 69: 1181-1182, 1983. PubMed: 6674471

Campbell JD, Faubert GM. Comparative studies on Giardia lamblia encystation in vitro and in vivo. J. Parasitol. 80: 36-44, 1994. PubMed: 8308656

Gillin FD. Giardia lamblia: the role of conjugated and unconjugated bile salts in killing by human milk. Exp. Parasitol. 63: 74-83, 1987. PubMed: 3803534

Reiner DS, et al. Identification and localization of cyst-specific antigens of Giardia lamblia. Infect. Immun. 57: 963-968, 1989. PubMed: 2917795

Baum KF, et al. Purine deoxynucleoside salvage in Giardia lamblia. J. Biol. Chem. 264: 21087-21090, 1989. PubMed: 2480350

Gillin FD, et al. Biliary lipids support serum-free growth of Giardia lamblia. Infect. Immun. 53: 641-645, 1986. PubMed: 3744557

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Gillin FD, et al. Inhibition of growth of Giardia lamblia by difluoromethylornithine, a specific inhibitor of polyamine biosynthesis. J. Protozool. 31: 161-163, 1984. PubMed: 6330350

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Cross References

Nucleotide (GenBank) : U24238 Giardia lamblia (ENC1) mRNA, complete cds.

Nucleotide (GenBank) : U24239 Giardia lamblia (ENC6) mRNA, complete cds.

Nucleotide (GenBank) : U42428 Giardia lamblia caltractin (CAL) gene, complete cds.

Nucleotide (GenBank) : AF067402 DNA polymerase alpha gene sequence, partial coding sequence

Nucleotide (GenBank) : U19901 Giardia lamblia putative adenylate kinase gene, complete cds.

Nucleotide (GenBank) : U10907 Giardia lamblia WB putative surface antigen gene, partial cds.

Nucleotide (GenBank) : X60427 G.lamblia telomere DNA containing truncated rRNA large subunit gene.

Nucleotide (GenBank) : M63966 Giardia lamblia variant-specific surface protein 1267 (vsp1267) gene, complete cds.

Nucleotide (GenBank) : AF005078 translation initiation factor 2 gamma subunit, eIF-2 gamma gene, partial coding sequence

Nucleotide (GenBank) : U12337 Giardia lamblia WB inorganic pyrophosphate-linked phosphofructokinase (GLPFK) gene, complete cds.