Escherichia coli (Migula) Castellani and Chalmers (ATCC® 25922)

Strain Designations: FDA strain Seattle 1946 [DSM 1103, NCIB 12210]  /  Type Strain: no  /  Biosafety Level: 1

Classification Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia
Strain Designations FDA strain Seattle 1946 [DSM 1103, NCIB 12210]
Application
susceptibility disc testing cephalexin Ref. . Literature issued December 20, 1970 on Cephalothin Discs by Eli Lilly and Co., Indianapolis, IN. : .
susceptibility disc testing cephaloglycin Ref. . Literature issued December 20, 1970 on Cephalothin Discs by Eli Lilly and Co., Indianapolis, IN. : .
susceptibility disc testing kanamycin RefBoyle VJ, et al. Rapid, modified Kirby-Bauer susceptibility test with single, high-concentration antimicrobial disks. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 3: 418-424, 1973. PubMed: 4790600
susceptibility disc testing cephaloridine cephalomycin Ref Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk and Dilution Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria Isolated from Animals; Approved Standard - 2nd Edition. Wayne, PA. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; CLSI M31-A3. Ref. . Literature issued December 20, 1970 on Cephalothin Discs by Eli Lilly and Co., Indianapolis, IN. : .
Food testing
Control Culture Ref Identification of Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens by Gene Probes: Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: Heat-Stable Enterotoxin (Human), Heat-Stable Enterotoxin (Porcine), and Heat-Labile Enterotoxin. Washington, DC:US Food & Drug Administration;Bacteriological Analytical Manual Online Chapt. 24, 2001 Ref Fecal Coliforms in Sewage Sludge (Biosolids) by Multiple-Tube Fermenatation using A-1 medium. Washington, DC:Environmental Protection Agency;EPA EPA Method 1681, 2005 Ref Salmonella in Sewage Sludge (Biosolids) by Modified Semisolid Rappaport-Vassiliadis (MSRV) Medium. Washington, DC:Environmental Protection Agency;EPA EPA Method 1682, 2005
control strain Ref Methodology for the Serum Bactericidal test: Approved Guideline. Wayne, PA. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; CLSI M21-A. Ref Methods for Determining Bactericidal Activity of Antimicrobial Agents; Approved Guideline. Wayne, PA. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; CLSI M26-A. Ref Procedures for the Recovery and Identification of Parasites from the Intestinal Tract: Approved Guideline - 2nd Edition. Wayne, PA. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; CLSI M28-A2.
evaluation of Mueller-Hinton agar Ref Protocols for Evaluating Dehydrated Mueller-Hinton Agar; Approved Standard. Wayne, PA. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; CLSI M6-A2. RefUS General Services Administration Mueller Hinton Medium, dehydrated. Washington, DC:US General Services Administration;Commercial Item Description A-A-50904A, 1986
media testing Ref Quality Control for Commercially Prepared Microbiological Culture Media; Approved Standard - 3rd Edition. Wayne, PA. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; CLSI M22-A3. Ref Food microbiology. Method 12.3: Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs -- Horizontal method for the enumeration of coagulase-positive staphylococci (Staphyloccus aureus and other species)--Detection and MPN technique for low numbers. Sydney, NSW, Australia:Standards Australia;Standards Australia AS 5013.12.3:2004. Ref Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs--Guidelines on preparation and production of culture media-- Part 2: Practical guidelines on performance testing of culture media.. Geneva (Switzerland):International Organization for Standardization/ANSI;ISO ISO 11133-2:2003. Ref Medical microbiology-- Culture media -- Part 3: Dip slides for microbiological urine analysis. Berlin, Germany:Deutsches Institut fur Normung;DIN DIN 58942-3: 2003, 2003 Ref Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs --- Horizontal method for the detection and enumeration of Listeria monocytogenes --- Part 1: Detection method, Annex B [BS 5763-18:1997]. London, UK:British Standards Institution;British Standard BS EN ISO 11290-1:1997. Ref Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs --- Horizontal method for the enumeration of beta-glucuronidase-positive Escherichia coli -- Part 3: Most probable number techniques using 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-D-glucuronide. London, UK:British Standards Institution;British Standard DD ISO/TS 16649-3:2005. Ref Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs --- Guidelines on preparation and production of culture media --- Part 2: Practical guidelines on performance testing of culture media - Annex B: Recommended test microorganisms for commonly used culture media. London, UK:British Standards Institution;British Standard DD CEN ISO/TS 11133:2003.
quality control Ref Quality Control of Microbiological Transport Systems; Approved Standard. Wayne, PA. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; CLSI M40-A.
quality control strain Ref API 20E QC Set. bioMerieux. Ref BD Crystal E/NF QC Set. BD Becton Dickinson; Crystal  Ref BD Enterotube II QC Set. BD Becton Dickinson; Enterotube  RefBD Phoenix Gram Negative AST NMIC/ID QC Set. BD Becton Dickinson; Phoenix  Ref Colilert. IDEXX. Ref Colisure. IDEXX. Ref MicroScan Dried Gram Negative Panel QC Set. Dade/Siemens. Ref MicroScan Rapid Gram Negative QC Set. Dade/Siemens. Ref Sensititre™ Automated Gram Positive ID. Thermo Scientific™ Sensititre™ Systems, Trek Diagnostic Systems. Ref Sensititre™ MIC Susceptibility. Thermo Scientific™ Sensititre™ Systems, Trek Diagnostic Systems. Ref Sensititre™ Aquaculture MIC Susceptibility. Thermo Scientific™ Sensititre™ Systems, Trek Diagnostic Systems.
susceptibility disc testing Ref Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Tests; Approved Standard - 9th Edition. Wayne, PA. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; CLSI M2-A9. Ref Methods for Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Testing of Bacteria Isolated from Aquatic Animals. Wayne, PA. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; CLSI M42-A. Ref Methods for Antimicrobial Dilution and Disk susceptibility Testing of Infrequently Isolated or Fastidious Bacteria: Proposed Guideline. Wayne, PA. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; CLSI M45-A. Ref Methods for Broth Dilution Susceptibility Testing of Bacteria Isolated from Aquatic Animals. Wayne, PA. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; CLSI M49-A.
susceptibility disc testing cephalothin Ref. . Literature issued December 20, 1970 on Cephalothin Discs by Eli Lilly and Co., Indianapolis, IN. : .
susceptibility disc testing chloramphenicol RefBoyle VJ, et al. Rapid, modified Kirby-Bauer susceptibility test with single, high-concentration antimicrobial disks. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 3: 418-424, 1973. PubMed: 4790600
susceptibility disc testing colistin colimycin RefBoyle VJ, et al. Rapid, modified Kirby-Bauer susceptibility test with single, high-concentration antimicrobial disks. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 3: 418-424, 1973. PubMed: 4790600
susceptibility disc testing gentamicins gentamicin RefBoyle VJ, et al. Rapid, modified Kirby-Bauer susceptibility test with single, high-concentration antimicrobial disks. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 3: 418-424, 1973. PubMed: 4790600
susceptibility disc testing nalidixic acid RefBoyle VJ, et al. Rapid, modified Kirby-Bauer susceptibility test with single, high-concentration antimicrobial disks. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 3: 418-424, 1973. PubMed: 4790600
susceptibility disc testing neomycin RefBoyle VJ, et al. Rapid, modified Kirby-Bauer susceptibility test with single, high-concentration antimicrobial disks. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 3: 418-424, 1973. PubMed: 4790600
susceptibility disc testing tetracycline RefBoyle VJ, et al. Rapid, modified Kirby-Bauer susceptibility test with single, high-concentration antimicrobial disks. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 3: 418-424, 1973. PubMed: 4790600
susceptibility testing Ref Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria that Grow Aerobically; Approved Standard - 7th Edition. Wayne, PA. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; CLSI M7-A8. Ref Methods for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Anaerobic Bacteria. Wayne, PA. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; CLSI M11-A7. Ref Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk and Dilution Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria Isolated from Animals; Approved Standard - 2nd Edition. Wayne, PA. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; CLSI M31-A3. Ref Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; Sixteenth Informational Supplement. Wayne, PA. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; CLSI M100-S20, 2007 Ref Evaluation of Lots of Dehydrated Mueller-Hinton Broth for Antimicrobial Susceptibility testing; Proposed Guideline. Wayne, PA. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; CLSI M32-P. RefMedical microbiology; methods for the determination of susceptibility of pathogens (except mycobacteria) to antimicrobial agents: agar diffusion test. Berlin, Germany: Deutsches Institut fur Normung; DIN 58940-3: 1989 Ref Medical microbiology -- Methods for the determination of susceptibility of pathogens (except mycobacteria) to antimicrobial agents-- Part 7: Determination of the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) with the aid of microdilution. Berlin, Germany:Deutsches Institut fur Normung;DIN DIN 58940-7: 1994, 1994 Ref Medical microbiology: methods for the determination of susceptibility of pathogens (except mycobacteria) to antimicrobial agents; determination of MICs by agar dilution method. Berlin, Germany:Deutsches Institut fur Normung;DIN DIN 58940-6: 1989, 1989 RefMedical microbiology -- Susceptibility testing of microbial pathogens to antimicrobial agents -- Part 81: Microdilution; Special requirements for testing of non-fastidious bacteria. Berlin, Germany: Deutsches Institut fur Normung; DIN 58940-81: 2002 Ref Clinical laboratory testing and in vitro diagnostic test systems --- Susceptibility testing of infectious agents and evaluation of performance of antimicrobial susceptibility test devices --- Part 1: Reference method for testing the in vitro activity of antimicrobial agents against rapidly growing aerobic bacteria involved in infectious diseases. London, UK:British Standards Institution;British Standard BS EN ISO 20776-1:2006.
testing Ref Aeromonas in Finished Water by Membrane Filtration using Ampicillin-Dextrin Agar with Vancomycin (ADA-V). Washington, DC:Environmental Protection Agency;EPA EPA Method 1605, 2001
quality control strain for Abbott, API, Autobac, BBL, bioMerieux Vitek, Biosynth, Difco, IDS, Micro-Media, MicroScan®, Roche Diagnostics, and Sensititre products
Isolation
clinical isolate
Type Strain no
Biosafety Level 1
Antigenic Properties Serotype O6, Biotype 1
Product Format freeze-dried
Storage Conditions Frozen: -80°C or colder
Freeze-Dried: 2°C to 8°C
Live Culture: See Propagation Section
Preceptrol® yes
Type Strain no
Antigenic Properties Serotype O6, Biotype 1
Comments
Incorrectly cited in previous editions of this catalog as identical to NCTC 10418
Biotype 1
Medium Medium 18: Trypticase Soy Agar/Broth
Growth Conditions
Temperature: 37°C
Atmosphere: Aerobic
Name of Depositor FDA
Chain of Custody
ATCC <-- FDA <-- F Schoenknecht
Isolation
clinical isolate
References

Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Tests; Approved Standard - 9th Edition. Wayne, PA. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; CLSI M2-A9.

Protocols for Evaluating Dehydrated Mueller-Hinton Agar; Approved Standard. Wayne, PA. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; CLSI M6-A2.

Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria that Grow Aerobically; Approved Standard - 7th Edition. Wayne, PA. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; CLSI M7-A8.

Methods for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Anaerobic Bacteria. Wayne, PA. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; CLSI M11-A7.

Methodology for the Serum Bactericidal test: Approved Guideline. Wayne, PA. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; CLSI M21-A.

Quality Control for Commercially Prepared Microbiological Culture Media; Approved Standard - 3rd Edition. Wayne, PA. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; CLSI M22-A3.

Methods for Determining Bactericidal Activity of Antimicrobial Agents; Approved Guideline. Wayne, PA. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; CLSI M26-A.

Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk and Dilution Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria Isolated from Animals; Approved Standard - 2nd Edition. Wayne, PA. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; CLSI M31-A3.

U.S. Food & Drug AdministrationEnterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: Heat-stabile enterotoxin (human), heat-stabile enterotoxin (porcine), and heat-labile enterotoxinIn: U.S. Food & Drug AdministrationBacteriological analytical manual8th ed.Gaithersburg, MDAOAC Internationalpp. 24.12-24.14, 1995

US General Services Administration Mueller Hinton Medium, dehydrated. Washington, DC:US General Services Administration;Commercial Item Description A-A-50904A, 1986

McNamara BP, Wolfe AJ. Coexpression of the long and short forms of CheA, the chemotaxis histidine kinase, by members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. J. Bacteriol. 179: 1813-1818, 1997. PubMed: 9045846

Nagar-Anthal KR, et al. The pterin lumazine inhibits growth of methanogens and methane formation. Arch. Microbiol. 166: 136-140, 1996.

Wang RF, et al. PCR detection and quantitiation of predominant anaerobic bacteria in human and animal fecal samples. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62: 1242-1247, 1996. PubMed: 8919784

Blondelle SE, et al. Identification of inhibitors of melittin using nonsupport-bound combinatorial libraries. J. Biol. Chem. 271: 4093-4099, 1996. PubMed: 8626746

. . Literature issued December 20, 1970 on Cephalothin Discs by Eli Lilly and Co., Indianapolis, IN. : .

Boyle VJ, et al. Rapid, modified Kirby-Bauer susceptibility test with single, high-concentration antimicrobial disks. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 3: 418-424, 1973. PubMed: 4790600

Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; Sixteenth Informational Supplement. Wayne, PA. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; CLSI M100-S20, 2007

API 20E QC Set. bioMerieux.

BD Crystal E/NF QC Set. BD Becton Dickinson; Crystal

BD Enterotube II QC Set. BD Becton Dickinson; Enterotube

BD Phoenix Gram Negative AST NMIC/ID QC Set. BD Becton Dickinson; Phoenix

Colilert. IDEXX.

Colisure. IDEXX.

MicroScan Dried Gram Negative Panel QC Set. Dade/Siemens.

MicroScan Rapid Gram Negative QC Set. Dade/Siemens.

Sensititre™ Automated Gram Positive ID. Thermo Scientific™ Sensititre™ Systems, Trek Diagnostic Systems.

Sensititre™ MIC Susceptibility. Thermo Scientific™ Sensititre™ Systems, Trek Diagnostic Systems.

Sensititre™ Aquaculture MIC Susceptibility. Thermo Scientific™ Sensititre™ Systems, Trek Diagnostic Systems.

Quality Control of Microbiological Transport Systems; Approved Standard. Wayne, PA. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; CLSI M40-A.

Abbreviated Identification of Bacteria and Yeast; Approved Guideline. Wayne, PA. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; CLSI M35-A2.

Methods for Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Testing of Bacteria Isolated from Aquatic Animals. Wayne, PA. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; CLSI M42-A.

Enumeration of Escherichia coli and the Coliform Bacteria: LST-MUG Method for Detecting E.coli in chilled or Frozen Foods Exclusive of Bivalve Mollucan Sellfish. Washington, DC:US Food & Drug Administration;Bacteriological Analytical Manual Online Chapt. 4.II.3, 2002

Identification of Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens by Gene Probes: Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: Heat-Stable Enterotoxin (Human), Heat-Stable Enterotoxin (Porcine), and Heat-Labile Enterotoxin. Washington, DC:US Food & Drug Administration;Bacteriological Analytical Manual Online Chapt. 24, 2001

Salmonella in Foods. Gaithersburg, MD:AOAC International;AOAC "Official Methods of Analysis of the AOAC International" 991.38.

Food microbiology. Method 12.3: Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs -- Horizontal method for the enumeration of coagulase-positive staphylococci (Staphyloccus aureus and other species)--Detection and MPN technique for low numbers. Sydney, NSW, Australia:Standards Australia;Standards Australia AS 5013.12.3:2004.

Procedures for the Recovery and Identification of Parasites from the Intestinal Tract: Approved Guideline - 2nd Edition. Wayne, PA. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; CLSI M28-A2.

Evaluation of Lots of Dehydrated Mueller-Hinton Broth for Antimicrobial Susceptibility testing; Proposed Guideline. Wayne, PA. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; CLSI M32-P.

Methods for Antimicrobial Dilution and Disk susceptibility Testing of Infrequently Isolated or Fastidious Bacteria: Proposed Guideline. Wayne, PA. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; CLSI M45-A.

Methods for Broth Dilution Susceptibility Testing of Bacteria Isolated from Aquatic Animals. Wayne, PA. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; CLSI M49-A.

Aeromonas in Finished Water by Membrane Filtration using Ampicillin-Dextrin Agar with Vancomycin (ADA-V). Washington, DC:Environmental Protection Agency;EPA EPA Method 1605, 2001

Fecal Coliforms in Sewage Sludge (Biosolids) by Multiple-Tube Fermenatation using A-1 medium. Washington, DC:Environmental Protection Agency;EPA EPA Method 1681, 2005

Salmonella in Sewage Sludge (Biosolids) by Modified Semisolid Rappaport-Vassiliadis (MSRV) Medium. Washington, DC:Environmental Protection Agency;EPA EPA Method 1682, 2005

Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs-- Horizontal method for the enumeration of coagulase-positive staphylococci (Staphylococcus aureus and other species)--Part3: Detection and MPN technique for low numbers. Geneva (Switzerland):International Organization for Standardization/ANSI;ISO ISO 6888-3:2003.

Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs--Guidelines on preparation and production of culture media-- Part 2: Practical guidelines on performance testing of culture media.. Geneva (Switzerland):International Organization for Standardization/ANSI;ISO ISO 11133-2:2003.

Medical microbiology; methods for the determination of susceptibility of pathogens (except mycobacteria) to antimicrobial agents: agar diffusion test. Berlin, Germany: Deutsches Institut fur Normung; DIN 58940-3: 1989

Medical microbiology -- Methods for the determination of susceptibility of pathogens (except mycobacteria) to antimicrobial agents-- Part 7: Determination of the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) with the aid of microdilution. Berlin, Germany:Deutsches Institut fur Normung;DIN DIN 58940-7: 1994, 1994

Medical microbiology: methods for the determination of susceptibility of pathogens (except mycobacteria) to antimicrobial agents; determination of MICs by agar dilution method. Berlin, Germany:Deutsches Institut fur Normung;DIN DIN 58940-6: 1989, 1989

Medical microbiology -- Susceptibility testing of microbial pathogens to antimicrobial agents -- Part 81: Microdilution; Special requirements for testing of non-fastidious bacteria. Berlin, Germany: Deutsches Institut fur Normung; DIN 58940-81: 2002

Medical microbiology-- Culture media -- Part 3: Dip slides for microbiological urine analysis. Berlin, Germany:Deutsches Institut fur Normung;DIN DIN 58942-3: 2003, 2003

Medical microbiology--Culture media -- Part 4: Transport systems for specimens containing bacteria. Berlin, Germany:Deutsches Institut fur Normung;DIN DIN 58942-4: 2003, 2003

Clinical laboratory testing and in vitro diagnostic test systems --- Susceptibility testing of infectious agents and evaluation of performance of antimicrobial susceptibility test devices --- Part 1: Reference method for testing the in vitro activity of antimicrobial agents against rapidly growing aerobic bacteria involved in infectious diseases. London, UK:British Standards Institution;British Standard BS EN ISO 20776-1:2006.

Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs --- Horizontal method for the detection and enumeration of Listeria monocytogenes --- Part 1: Detection method, Annex B [BS 5763-18:1997]. London, UK:British Standards Institution;British Standard BS EN ISO 11290-1:1997.

Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs --- Horizontal method for the determination of low numbers of presumptive Bacillus cereus --- Most probable number technique and detection method. London, UK:British Standards Institution;British Standard BS EN ISO 21871:2006.

Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs --- Horizontal method for the enumeration of beta-glucuronidase-positive Escherichia coli -- Part 3: Most probable number techniques using 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-D-glucuronide. London, UK:British Standards Institution;British Standard DD ISO/TS 16649-3:2005.

Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs --- Guidelines on preparation and production of culture media --- Part 2: Practical guidelines on performance testing of culture media - Annex B: Recommended test microorganisms for commonly used culture media. London, UK:British Standards Institution;British Standard DD CEN ISO/TS 11133:2003.

Colilert-18 QC Set. IDEXX.

VITEK 2 AST-GN QC Set. bioMerieux.

RapID™ ONE QC Set. Remel™.

RapID™ SS/u QC Set. Remel™.

MicroScan ESBL plus QC Set. Dade/Siemens.

MicroScan Rapid Gram Negative ID QC Set. Dade/Siemens.

MicroScan Rapid Neg ID Type 4 QC Set. Dade/Siemens.

MicroScan Streamlined ID QC Set. Dade/Siemens.

MicroScan Synergies plus Gram Negative QC Set. Dade/Siemens.

Colitag™ Test Kit QC Set. CPI International

ISO/CD 11133:2009, Annex E. Test microorganisms for commonly used culture media (giving information on the culture medium, culture conditions, test microorganisms, culture collection number of test organisms and the expected reactions)

Corry, JEL, Curtis, GDW and Baird, RM (Eds) Handbook of Culture Media for Food and Water Microbiology. Royal Society of Chemistry, In preparation. ICFMH-WPCM.

API 10S QC Set. bioMerieux.

Pseudalert QC Set. IDEXX.

Kouadio N et al. Biotypes of Escherichia coli isolated from fish and water of Fresco lagoon, Côte d'Ivoire. J. Appl. Biosci. 38: 2523-2530, 2011.

Sensititre™ MIC Breakpoint QC Set/5. Thermo Scientific™ Sensititre™ Systems, Trek Diagnostic Systems.

Cross References

Nucleotide (GenBank) : AX110212 Sequence 945 from Patent WO0123604.

Nucleotide (GenBank) : AX110242 Sequence 975 from Patent WO0123604.

Nucleotide (GenBank) : AX111547 Sequence 2280 from Patent WO0123604.

Nucleotide (GenBank) : X80724 E. coli (ATCC 25922) gene for 16S rRNA.

Nucleotide (GenBank) : AF038431 Escherichia coli DNA gyrase A (gyrA) gene, partial cds.

Basic Documentation
FAQs
  1. ATCC item no. 25922 antibiotic resistance
    ATCC® 25922 ™,
    Date Updated: 12/5/2013