Encephalitozoon hellem Didier et al. (ATCC® 50451)

Strain Designations: CDC:0291:V213  /  Depositor: GS Visvesvara  /  Biosafety Level: 2

Permits and Restrictions

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Strain Designations CDC:0291:V213
Enteric Research
Food and waterborne pathogen research
Opportunistic pathogen research
Biosafety Level 2

Biosafety classification is based on U.S. Public Health Service Guidelines, it is the responsibility of the customer to ensure that their facilities comply with biosafety regulations for their own country.

Isolation Urine from adult human male AIDS patient, Georgia, 1991
Product Format frozen
Storage Conditions Frozen Cultures:
-70°C for 1 week; liquid N2 vapor for long term storage

Freeze-dried Cultures:

Live Cultures:
See Protocols section for handling information
Type Strain no
Control strain for enterocytozoan identification
detection of drug-induced effects in infected green monkey kidney cells
Western blot and immunofluorescence analysis
Culture, electron microscopy, and immunobolt studies
Inhibition of spore polar filament extrusion
Use of rabbit antiserum conspecific for Encephalitozoon hellum for identification
Polyclonal and monoclonal antibody and PCR based identification
Serologic and molecular identification
Molecular PCR based identification
Growth Conditions
Temperature: 35°C
Atmosphere: 5% CO2
Cell Line: ATCC® CCL-26™ (kidney, African green monkey)
Cryopreservation Harvest and Preservation
  1. Harvest the culture by gently agitating the contents of each flask.  Transfer all but approximately 1 mL of the culture medium to 15 mL plastic centrifuge tubes. Detach the remaining tissue culture cells (infected and uninfected) by scraping the surface of the flask with a cell scraper. Pass the resulting cell suspension through a syringe equipped with a 27 gauge 1/2 in needle and pool this suspension with the culture fluid.
  2. Spin the cell suspensions at approximately 50 x g for 3 min, to remove the cellular debris.
  3. Transfer the spore suspensions (supernatants) to new 15 mL plastic centrifuge tubes.  Centrifuge at 1300 x g for 10 min.
  4. Pool the spore pellets and adjust the concentration to 2.0 - 4.0 x 107 cells/mL with a fresh solution of Hank's Balanced Salt Solution.*If the concentration is too low centrifuge at 1300 x g for 10 min and resuspend in the volume of Hank's Balanced Salt Solution required to yield the desired concentration.
  5. Mix the spore preparation and 20% (v/v) DMSO in equal portions.  The final concentration will be 1.0 - 2.0 x 107 cells/mL and 10% DMSO.  The time from the mixing of the cell preparation and the cryoprotective solution before the freezing process begins should be no less than 15 min. and no more than 30 min.
  6. Dispense in 0.5 mL aliquots to 1.0-2.0 mL sterile plastic screw-capped cryules (special plastic vials for cryopreservation).
  7. Place the vials in a controlled rate freezing unit.  From room temperature cool at -1°C/min to -40°C.  If the freezing unit can compensate for the heat of fusion, maintain rate at -1°C/min through the heat of fusion.  At -40°C plunge into liquid nitrogen. Alternatively, place the vials in a Nalgene 1°C freezing apparatus.  Place the apparatus at -80°C for 1.5 to 2 hours and then plunge ampules into liquid nitrogen.  (The cooling rate in this apparatus is approximately -1°C/min.)  
  8. Store in either the vapor or liquid phase of a nitrogen refrigerator.
  9. To thaw a frozen ampule, place it in a 35°C water bath such that the lip of the ampule remains above the water line. Thawing time is approximately 2 to 3 minutes.  Do not agitate the ampule.  Do not leave ampule in water bath after thawed.
  10. Immediately after thawing, aseptically transfer contents to a T-25 tissue culture flask containing a fresh monolayer of ATCC® CCL-26™ cells and 10 mL ATCC® 30-2003 with 3% (v/v) HIFBS.
  11. Outgas the flask for 10 seconds with a 95% air, 5% CO2 gas mixture.
  12. Incubate in a 35°C CO2 incubator with the caps screwed on tightly.
Name of Depositor GS Visvesvara
Year of Origin 1991

Leitch GJ, et al. Inhibition of the spore polar filament extrusion of the microsporidium, Encephalitozoon hellem, isolated from an AIDS patient. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 40: 711-717, 1993. PubMed: 8292991

Visvesvara GS, et al. Culture, electron microscopy, and immunoblot studies on a microsporidian parasite isolated from the urine of a patient with AIDS. J. Protozool. 38: 105S-111S, 1991. PubMed: 1818126

Diesenhouse MC, et al. Treatment of microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis with topical fumagillin. Am. J. Opthalmol. 115: 293-298, 1993. PubMed: 8117342

Visvesvara GS, et al. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibody and PCR-amplified small-subunit rRNA identification of a microsporidian, Encephalitozoon hellem, isolated from an AIDS patient with disseminated infection. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32: 2760-2768, 1994. PubMed: 7852569

Visvesvara GS, et al. In vitro culture and serologic and molecular identification of Septata intestinalis isolated from urine of a patient with AIDS. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 930-936, 1995. PubMed: 7790463

De Groote MA, et al. Polymerase chain reaction and culture confirmation of disseminated Encephalitozoon cuniculi in a patient with AIDS: Successful therapy with albendazole. J. Infect. Dis. 171: 1375-1378, 1995. PubMed: 7751721

Gatti S, et al. Extraintestinal microsporidiosis in AIDS patients: clinical features and advanced protocols for diagnosis and characterization of the isolates. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 44: 79S, 1997. PubMed: 9508459

Croppo GP, et al. Western blot and immunofluorescence analysis of a human isolate of Encephalitozoon cuniculi established in culture from the urine of a patient with AIDS. J. Parasitol. 83: 66-69, 1997. PubMed: 9057698

Moura H, et al. Detection by an immunofluorescence test of Encephalitozoon intestinalis spores in routinely formalin-fixed stool samples stored at room temperature. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 2317-2322, 1999. PubMed: 10364604

Croppo GP, et al. Identification of the microsporidian Encephalitozoon hellem using immunoglobulin G monoclonal antibodies. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 122: 182-186, 1998. PubMed: 9499364

del Aguila C, et al. Ultrastructure, immunofluorescence, western blot, and PCR analysis of eight isolates of Encephalitozoon (Septata) intestinalis established in culture from sputum and urine samples and duodenal aspirates of five patients with AIDS. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 1201-1208, 1998. PubMed: 9574677

Bornay-Llinares FJ, et al. Immunologic, microscopic, and molecular evidence of Encephalitozoon intestinalis (Septata intestinalis) infection in mammals other than humans. J. Infect. Dis. 178: 820-826, 1998. PubMed: 9728552

Scaglia M, et al. Asymptomatic respiratory tract microsporidiosis due to Encephalitozoon hellem in three patients with AIDS. Clin. Infect. Dis. 26: 174-176, 1998. PubMed: 9455527

Leitch GJ, et al. Use of fluorescent probe to assess the activities of candidate agents against intracellular forms of Encephalitozoon microsporidia. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41: 337-344, 1997. PubMed: 9021189

He Q, et al. Effects of nifedipine, metronidazole, and nitric oxide donors on spore germination and cell culture infection of the microsporidia Encephalitozoon hellem and Encephalitozoon intestinalis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40: 179-185, 1996. PubMed: 8787902

Marshall MM, et al. Comparison of UV inactivation of spores of three encephalitozoon species with that of spores of two DNA repair-deficient Bacillus subtilis biodosimetry strains. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69: 683-685, 2003. PubMed: 12514061

Xiao L, et al. Genotyping Encephalitozoon hellem isolates by analysis of the polar tube protein gene. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39: 2191-2196, 2001. PubMed: 11376056

del Aguila C, et al. In vitro culture, ultrastructure, antigenic, and molecular characterization of Encephalitozoon cuniculi isolated from urine and sputum samples from a Spanish patient with AIDS. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39: 1105-1108, 2001. PubMed: 11230434

Johnson CH, et al. Chlorine inactivation of spores of Encephalitozoon spp.. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69: 1325-1326, 2003. PubMed: 12571067

Hester JD, et al. Species-specific detection of three human-pathogenic microsporidial species from the genus Encephalitozoon via fluorogenic 5' nuclease PCR assays. Mol. Cell Probes 16: 435-444, 2002. PubMed: 12490145

Molestina R, Becnel JJ, Weiss LM. Culture and Propagation of Microsporidia. In Microsporidia: Pathogens of Opportunity, First Edition, Chapter 18: pp. 457-467, 2014. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Notice: Necessary PermitsPermits

These permits may be required for shipping this product:

  • Customers located in the state of Hawaii will need to contact the Hawaii Department of Agriculture to determine if an Import Permit is required. A copy of the permit or documentation that a permit is not required must be sent to ATCC in advance of shipment.
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