HeLa (ATCC® CCL-2)

Organism: Homo sapiens, human  /  Cell Type: epithelial  /  Tissue: cervix  /  Disease: adenocarcinoma

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Organism Homo sapiens, human
Tissue cervix
Cell Type epithelial
Product Format frozen
Morphology epithelial
Culture Properties adherent
Biosafety Level 2  [Cells contain human papilloma virus]
Disease adenocarcinoma
Age 31 years adult
Gender female
Ethnicity Black
Applications
These cells are a suitable transfection host.
This cell line can be used to screen for Escherichia coli strains with invasive potential.
Storage Conditions liquid nitrogen vapor phase
Karyotype Modal number = 82; range = 70 to 164.
There is a small telocentric chromosome in 98% of the cells. 100% aneuploidy in 1385 cells examined. Four typical HeLa marker chromosomes have been reported in the literature. HeLa Marker Chromosomes: One copy of Ml, one copy of M2, four-five copies of M3, and two copies of M4 as revealed by G-banding patterns. M1 is a rearranged long arm and centromere of chromosome 1 and the long arm of chromosome 3. M2 is a combination of short arm of chromosome 3 and long arm of chromosome 5. M3 is an isochromosome of the short arm of chromosome 5. M4 consists of the long arm of chromosome 11 and an arm of chromosome 19. Note: Cytogenetic information is based on initial seed stock at ATCC. Cytogenetic instability has been reported in the literature for some cell lines.
Images
Clinical Data
31 years
Black
female
HeLa Markers Y
Genes Expressed
Lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC) induces AP-1 activity and c-jun N-terminal kinase activity (JNK1) by a protein kinase C-independent pathway. The cells are positive for keratin by immunoperoxidase staining.
Virus Susceptibility Human adenovirus 3
Encephalomyocarditis virus
Human poliovirus 1
Human poliovirus 2
Human poliovirus 3
Comments
The cells are positive for keratin by immunoperoxidase staining.
HeLa cells have been reported to contain human papilloma virus 18 (HPV-18) sequences.
P53 expression was reported to be low, and normal levels of pRB (retinoblastoma suppressor) were found.
Complete Growth Medium The base medium for this cell line is ATCC-formulated Eagle's Minimum Essential Medium, Catalog No. 30-2003. To make the complete growth medium, add the following components to the base medium: fetal bovine serum to a final concentration of 10%.
Subculturing
Volumes used in this protocol are for a 75 cm2 flask; proportionally reduce or increase amount of dissociation medium for culture vessels of other sizes.
  1. Remove and discard culture medium.
  2. Briefly rinse the cell layer with 0.25% (w/v) Trypsin- 0.53 mM EDTA solution to remove all traces of serum which contains trypsin inhibitor.
  3. Add 2.0 to 3.0 mL of Trypsin-EDTA solution to flask and observe cells under an inverted microscope until cell layer is dispersed (usually within 5 to 15 minutes).
    Note: To avoid clumping do not agitate the cells by hitting or shaking the flask while waiting for the cells to detach. Cells that are difficult to detach may be placed at 37°C to facilitate dispersal.
  4. Add 6.0 to 8.0 mL of complete growth medium and aspirate cells by gently pipetting.
  5. Add appropriate aliquots of the cell suspension to new culture vessels.
  6. Incubate cultures at 37°C.
Subcultivation Ratio: A subcultivation ratio of 1:2 to 1:6 is recommended
Medium Renewal: 2 to 3 times per week
Cryopreservation
Freeze Medium: Complete growth medium supplemented with 5% (v/v) DMSO
Storage Temperature: Liquid nitrogen vapor phase
Culture Conditions
Atmosphere: Air, 95%; carbon dioxide (CO2), 5%
Temperature: 37°C
STR Profile
Amelogenin: X
CSF1PO: 9,10
D13S317: 12,13.3
D16S539: 9,10
D5S818: 11,12
D7S820: 8,12
THO1: 7
TPOX: 8,12
vWA: 16,18
Isoenzymes
G6PD, A
Name of Depositor WF Scherer
References

American Public Health Association. Compendium of methods for the microbiological examination of foods. 3rd ed.Washington, DC: American Public Health Association; 1992.

AOAC International Invasiveness by Escherichia coli of mammalian cells, microbiological method. Gaithersburg, MD:AOAC International;AOAC "Official Methods of Analysis of the AOAC International" 982.36.

Baldi A, et al. Genomic structure of the human retinoblastoma-related Rb2/p130 gene. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93: 4629-4632, 1996. PubMed: 8643454

Gey GO, et al. Tissue culture studies of the proliferative capacity of cervical carcinoma and normal epithelium. Cancer Res. 12: 264-265, 1952.

Chen TR. Re-evaluation of HeLa, HeLa S3, and HEp-2 karyotypes. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 48: 19-24, 1988. PubMed: 3180844

Boshart M, et al. A new type of papillomavirus DNA, its presence in genital cancer biopsies and in cell lines derived from cervical cancer. EMBO J. 3: 1151-1157, 1984. PubMed: 6329740

Schneider-Gadicke A, Schwarz E. Different human cervical carcinoma cell lines show similar transcription patterns of human papillomavirus type 18 early genes. EMBO J. 5: 2285-2292, 1986. PubMed: 3023067

Schwarz E, et al. Structure and transcription of human papillomavirus sequences in cervical carcinoma cells. Nature 314: 111-114, 1985. PubMed: 2983228

Pater MM, Pater A. Human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 sequences in carcinoma cell lines of the cervix. Virology 145: 313-318, 1985. PubMed: 2992153

Yee C, et al. Presence and expression of human papillomavirus sequences in human cervical carcinoma cell lines. Am. J. Pathol. 119: 361-366, 1985. PubMed: 2990217

Scheffner M, et al. The state of the p53 and retinoblastoma genes in human cervical carcinoma cell lines. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88: 5523-5527, 1991. PubMed: 1648218

Jones HW Jr., et al. George Otto Gey. (1899-1970). The HeLa cell and a reappraisal of its origin. Obstet. Gynecol. 38: 945-949, 1971. PubMed: 4942173

Scherer WF, Hoogasian AF. Preservation at subzero temperatures of mouse fibroblasts (strain L) and human epithelial cells (strain HeLa). Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 87: 480-487, 1954. PubMed: 13237281

Scherer WF, et al. Studies on the propagation in vitro of poliomyelitis viruses. IV. Viral multiplication in a stable strain of human malignant epithelial cells (strain HeLa) derived from an epidermoid carcinoma of the cervix. J. Exp. Med. 97: 695-710, 1953. PubMed: 13052828

Fang X, et al. Lysophosphatidylcholine stimulates activator protein 1 and the c-Jun N-terminal kinase activity. J. Biol. Chem. 272: 13683-13689, 1997. PubMed: 9153219

Bruder JT, Kovesdi I. Adenovirus infection stimulates the Raf/MAPK signaling pathway and induces interleukin-8 expression. J. Virol. 71: 398-404, 1997. PubMed: 8985363

Huber M, et al. Tyrosine phosphorylation events during coxsackievirus B3 replication. J. Virol. 71: 595-600, 1997. PubMed: 8985388

Olson JK, et al. Varicella-zoster virus Fc receptor gE glycoprotein: serine/threonine and tyrosine phosphorylation of monomeric and dimeric forms. J. Virol. 71: 110-119, 1997. PubMed: 8985329

Goodrum FD, Ornelles DA. The early region 1B 55-kilodalton oncoprotein of adenovirus relieves growth restrictions imposed on viral replication by the cell cycle. J. Virol. 71: 548-561, 1997. PubMed: 8985383

Loffler S, et al. CD9, a tetraspan transmembrane protein, renders cells susceptible to canine distemper virus. J. Virol. 71: 42-49, 1997. PubMed: 8985321

Hendricks DT, et al. FHIT gene expression in human ovarian, endometrial, and cervical cancer cell lines. Cancer Res. 57: 2112-2115, 1997. PubMed: 9187105

Hoppe HC, et al. Identification of phosphatidylinositol mannoside as a mycobacterial adhesin mediating both direct and opsonic binding to nonphagocytic mammalian cells. Infect. Immun. 65: 3896-3905, 1997. PubMed: 9284169

Rieder G, et al. Role of adherence in Interleukin-8 induction in Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis. Infect. Immun. 65: 3622-3630, 1997. PubMed: 9284128

St. Geme JW, et al. Characterization of the genetic locus encoding Haemophilus influenzae type b surface fibrils. J. Bacteriol. 178: 6281-6287, 1996. PubMed: 8892830

Mansky LM. The mutation rate of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is influenced by the vpr gene. Virology 222: 391-400, 1996. PubMed: 8806523

Dobbelstein M, Shenk T. Protection against apoptosis by the vaccinia virus SPI-2 (B13R) gene product. J. Virol. 70: 6479-6485, 1996. PubMed: 8709286

Churchill MJ, et al. The rev-responsive element negatively regulates human immunodeficiency virus type 1 env mRNA expression in primate cells. J. Virol. 70: 5786-5790, 1996. PubMed: 8709194

Goodrum FD, et al. Adenovirus early region 4 34-kilodalton protein directs the nuclear localization of the early region 1B 55-kilodalton protein in primate cells. J. Virol. 70: 6323-6335, 1996. PubMed: 8709260

Kolanus W, et al. alphaLbeta2 integrin/LFA-1 binding to ICAM-1 induced by cytohesin-1 a cytoplasmic regulatory molecule. Cell 86: 233-242, 1996. PubMed: 8706128

Gan W, Rhoads RE. Internal initiation of translation directed by the 5'-untranslated region of the mRNA for eIF4G, a factor involved in the picornavirus-induced switch from cap-dependent to internal initiation. J. Biol. Chem. 271: 623-626, 1996. PubMed: 8557663

Koumenis C, Giaccia A. Tranformed cells require continuous activity of RNA polymerase II to resist oncogene-induced apoptosis. Mol. Cell. Biol. 17: 7306-7316, 1997. PubMed: 9372962

You M, et al. ch-IAp1, a member of the inhibitor-of-apoptosis protein family, is a mediator of the antiapoptotic activity of the v-Rel oncoprotein. Mol. Cell. Biol. 17: 7328-7341, 1997. PubMed: 9372964

Hess MT, et al. Base pair conformation-dependent excision of benzo{a}pyrene diol epoxide-guanine adducts by human nucleotide excision repair enzymes. Mol. Cell. Biol. 17: 7069-7076, 1997. PubMed: 9372938

Bartz SR, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 cell cycle control: Vpr is cytostatic and mediates G2 accumulation by a mechanism which differs from DNA damage checkpoint control. J. Virol. 70: 2324-2331, 1996. PubMed: 8642659

Roller RJ, et al. Structure and function in the herpes simplex virus 1 RNA-binding protein US11: mapping of the domain required for ribosomal and nucleolar association and RNA binding in vitro. J. Virol. 70: 2842-2851, 1996. PubMed: 8627758

Jang SI, et al. Activator protein 1 activity is involved in the regulation of the cell type-specific expression from the proximal promoter of the human profilaggrin gene. J. Biol. Chem. 271: 24105-24114, 1996. PubMed: 8798649

Anderson SM, et al. Intercellular transfer of a glycoslphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked protein: release and uptake of CD4-GPI from recombinant adeno-associated virus-transducted HeLa cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93: 5894-5898, 1996. PubMed: 8650189

Dittrich E, et al. A di-leucine motif and an upstream serine in the interleukin-6 (IL-6) signal transducer gp130 mediate ligand-induced endocytosis and down-regulation of the IL-6 receptor. J. Biol. Chem. 271: 5487-5494, 1996. PubMed: 8621406

Lee JH, et al. The proximal promoter of the human transglutaminase 3 gene. J. Biol. Chem. 271: 4561-4568, 1996. PubMed: 8626812

Duus KM, Grose C. Multiple regulatory effects of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) gL on trafficking patterns and fusogenic properties of VZV gH. J. Virol. 70: 8961-8971, 1996. PubMed: 8971025

Lieber A, et al. Recombinant adenoviruses with large deletions geneerated by cre-mediated excision exhibit different biological properties compared with first-generation vectors in vitro and in vivo. J. Virol. 70: 8944-8960, 1996. PubMed: 8971024

Yang C, Compans RW. Analysis of the cell fusion activities of chimeric simian immunodeficiency virus-murine leukemia virus envelope proteins: inhibitory effects of the R peptide. J. Virol. 70: 248-254, 1996. PubMed: 8523533

Schubert U, et al. The two biological activities of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu protein involve two separable structural domains. J. Virol. 70: 809-819, 1996. PubMed: 8551619

McKnight KL, Lemon SM. Capsid coding sequence is required for efficient replication of human rhinovirus 14 RNA. J. Virol. 70: 1941-1952, 1996. PubMed: 8627720

Lu FM, Lux SE. Constitutively active human notch 1 binds to the transcription factor CBF1 and stimulates transcription through a promoter containing a CBF1-responsive element. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93: 5663-5667, 1996. PubMed: 8643633

Yamaguchi Y, et al. Biochemical characterization and intracellular localization of the Menkes disease protein. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93: 14030-14035, 1996. PubMed: 8943055

Hewitt SM, et al. Differential function of Wilms' tumor gene WT1 splice isoforms in transcriptional regulation. J. Biol. Chem. 271: 8588-8592, 1996. PubMed: 8621487

Kotanides H, Reich NC. Interleukin-4-induced STAT6 recognizes and activates a target site in the promoter of the interleukin-4 receptor gene. J. Biol. Chem. 271: 25555-25561, 1996. PubMed: 8810328

Zhao Z, et al. Activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway by pervanadate, a potent inhibitor of tyrosine phosphatases. J. Biol. Chem. 271: 22251-22255, 1996. PubMed: 8703041

Quitschke WW, et al. The initator element and proximal upstream sequences affect transcriptional activity and start site selection in the amyloid beta-protein precursor promoter. J. Biol. Chem. 271: 22231-22239, 1996. PubMed: 8703038

Hocking AM, et al. Eukaryotic expression of recombinant biglycan. J. Biol. Chem. 271: 19571-19577, 1996. PubMed: 8702651

Chen H, et al. Octamer binding factors and their coactivator can activate the murine PU.1 (spi-1) promoter. J. Biol. Chem. 271: 15743-15752, 1996. PubMed: 8663022

Macville M, et al. Comprehensive and definitive molecular cytogenetic characterization of HeLa cells by spectral karyotyping. Cancer Res. 59: 141-150, 1999. PubMed: 9892199

Dentistry--Preclinical evaluation of biocompatibility of medical devices used in dentistry--Test methods for dental materials. Geneva (Switzerland):International Organization for Standardization/ANSI;ISO ISO 7405:1997.

Cross References

Nucleotide (GenBank) : X98561 H.sapiens mRNA for dsRNA adenosine deaminase, exon 1C.

Nucleotide (GenBank) : X98562 H.sapiens mRNA for dsRNA adenosine deaminase, exon 1D.

Nucleotide (GenBank) : U89349 Human papillomavirus type 18 variant, partial sequence.

Nucleotide (GenBank) : AJ251709 Homo sapiens partial mRNA for putative protein kinase ERK3.

Nucleotide (GenBank) : X84958 H.sapiens mRNA for interferon-induced 17kDa membrane protein.

Nucleotide (GenBank) : X98559 H.sapiens mRNA for dsRNA adenosine deaminase, constant region.

Nucleotide (GenBank) : AJ251708 Homo sapiens partial mRNA for putative microtubule-binding protein.

Nucleotide (GenBank) : NM_003641 Homo sapiens interferon induced transmembrane protein 1 (9-27) (IFITM1), mRNA.

Nucleotide (GenBank) : NM_022126 Homo sapiens phospholysine phosphohistidine inorganic pyrophosphate phosphatase (LHPP), mRNA.

Nucleotide (GenBank) : AB049629 Homo sapiens lhpp mRNA for phospholysine phosphohistidine inorganic pyrophosphate phosphatase, complete cds.

Notice: Necessary PermitsPermits

These permits may be required for shipping this product:

  • Customers located in the state of Hawaii will need to contact the Hawaii Department of Agriculture to determine if an Import Permit is required. A copy of the permit or documentation that a permit is not required must be sent to ATCC in advance of shipment.
Basic Documentation
Other Documentation
References

American Public Health Association. Compendium of methods for the microbiological examination of foods. 3rd ed.Washington, DC: American Public Health Association; 1992.

AOAC International Invasiveness by Escherichia coli of mammalian cells, microbiological method. Gaithersburg, MD:AOAC International;AOAC "Official Methods of Analysis of the AOAC International" 982.36.

Baldi A, et al. Genomic structure of the human retinoblastoma-related Rb2/p130 gene. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93: 4629-4632, 1996. PubMed: 8643454

Gey GO, et al. Tissue culture studies of the proliferative capacity of cervical carcinoma and normal epithelium. Cancer Res. 12: 264-265, 1952.

Chen TR. Re-evaluation of HeLa, HeLa S3, and HEp-2 karyotypes. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 48: 19-24, 1988. PubMed: 3180844

Boshart M, et al. A new type of papillomavirus DNA, its presence in genital cancer biopsies and in cell lines derived from cervical cancer. EMBO J. 3: 1151-1157, 1984. PubMed: 6329740

Schneider-Gadicke A, Schwarz E. Different human cervical carcinoma cell lines show similar transcription patterns of human papillomavirus type 18 early genes. EMBO J. 5: 2285-2292, 1986. PubMed: 3023067

Schwarz E, et al. Structure and transcription of human papillomavirus sequences in cervical carcinoma cells. Nature 314: 111-114, 1985. PubMed: 2983228

Pater MM, Pater A. Human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 sequences in carcinoma cell lines of the cervix. Virology 145: 313-318, 1985. PubMed: 2992153

Yee C, et al. Presence and expression of human papillomavirus sequences in human cervical carcinoma cell lines. Am. J. Pathol. 119: 361-366, 1985. PubMed: 2990217

Scheffner M, et al. The state of the p53 and retinoblastoma genes in human cervical carcinoma cell lines. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88: 5523-5527, 1991. PubMed: 1648218

Jones HW Jr., et al. George Otto Gey. (1899-1970). The HeLa cell and a reappraisal of its origin. Obstet. Gynecol. 38: 945-949, 1971. PubMed: 4942173

Scherer WF, Hoogasian AF. Preservation at subzero temperatures of mouse fibroblasts (strain L) and human epithelial cells (strain HeLa). Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 87: 480-487, 1954. PubMed: 13237281

Scherer WF, et al. Studies on the propagation in vitro of poliomyelitis viruses. IV. Viral multiplication in a stable strain of human malignant epithelial cells (strain HeLa) derived from an epidermoid carcinoma of the cervix. J. Exp. Med. 97: 695-710, 1953. PubMed: 13052828

Fang X, et al. Lysophosphatidylcholine stimulates activator protein 1 and the c-Jun N-terminal kinase activity. J. Biol. Chem. 272: 13683-13689, 1997. PubMed: 9153219

Bruder JT, Kovesdi I. Adenovirus infection stimulates the Raf/MAPK signaling pathway and induces interleukin-8 expression. J. Virol. 71: 398-404, 1997. PubMed: 8985363

Huber M, et al. Tyrosine phosphorylation events during coxsackievirus B3 replication. J. Virol. 71: 595-600, 1997. PubMed: 8985388

Olson JK, et al. Varicella-zoster virus Fc receptor gE glycoprotein: serine/threonine and tyrosine phosphorylation of monomeric and dimeric forms. J. Virol. 71: 110-119, 1997. PubMed: 8985329

Goodrum FD, Ornelles DA. The early region 1B 55-kilodalton oncoprotein of adenovirus relieves growth restrictions imposed on viral replication by the cell cycle. J. Virol. 71: 548-561, 1997. PubMed: 8985383

Loffler S, et al. CD9, a tetraspan transmembrane protein, renders cells susceptible to canine distemper virus. J. Virol. 71: 42-49, 1997. PubMed: 8985321

Hendricks DT, et al. FHIT gene expression in human ovarian, endometrial, and cervical cancer cell lines. Cancer Res. 57: 2112-2115, 1997. PubMed: 9187105

Hoppe HC, et al. Identification of phosphatidylinositol mannoside as a mycobacterial adhesin mediating both direct and opsonic binding to nonphagocytic mammalian cells. Infect. Immun. 65: 3896-3905, 1997. PubMed: 9284169

Rieder G, et al. Role of adherence in Interleukin-8 induction in Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis. Infect. Immun. 65: 3622-3630, 1997. PubMed: 9284128

St. Geme JW, et al. Characterization of the genetic locus encoding Haemophilus influenzae type b surface fibrils. J. Bacteriol. 178: 6281-6287, 1996. PubMed: 8892830

Mansky LM. The mutation rate of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is influenced by the vpr gene. Virology 222: 391-400, 1996. PubMed: 8806523

Dobbelstein M, Shenk T. Protection against apoptosis by the vaccinia virus SPI-2 (B13R) gene product. J. Virol. 70: 6479-6485, 1996. PubMed: 8709286

Churchill MJ, et al. The rev-responsive element negatively regulates human immunodeficiency virus type 1 env mRNA expression in primate cells. J. Virol. 70: 5786-5790, 1996. PubMed: 8709194

Goodrum FD, et al. Adenovirus early region 4 34-kilodalton protein directs the nuclear localization of the early region 1B 55-kilodalton protein in primate cells. J. Virol. 70: 6323-6335, 1996. PubMed: 8709260

Kolanus W, et al. alphaLbeta2 integrin/LFA-1 binding to ICAM-1 induced by cytohesin-1 a cytoplasmic regulatory molecule. Cell 86: 233-242, 1996. PubMed: 8706128

Gan W, Rhoads RE. Internal initiation of translation directed by the 5'-untranslated region of the mRNA for eIF4G, a factor involved in the picornavirus-induced switch from cap-dependent to internal initiation. J. Biol. Chem. 271: 623-626, 1996. PubMed: 8557663

Koumenis C, Giaccia A. Tranformed cells require continuous activity of RNA polymerase II to resist oncogene-induced apoptosis. Mol. Cell. Biol. 17: 7306-7316, 1997. PubMed: 9372962

You M, et al. ch-IAp1, a member of the inhibitor-of-apoptosis protein family, is a mediator of the antiapoptotic activity of the v-Rel oncoprotein. Mol. Cell. Biol. 17: 7328-7341, 1997. PubMed: 9372964

Hess MT, et al. Base pair conformation-dependent excision of benzo{a}pyrene diol epoxide-guanine adducts by human nucleotide excision repair enzymes. Mol. Cell. Biol. 17: 7069-7076, 1997. PubMed: 9372938

Bartz SR, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 cell cycle control: Vpr is cytostatic and mediates G2 accumulation by a mechanism which differs from DNA damage checkpoint control. J. Virol. 70: 2324-2331, 1996. PubMed: 8642659

Roller RJ, et al. Structure and function in the herpes simplex virus 1 RNA-binding protein US11: mapping of the domain required for ribosomal and nucleolar association and RNA binding in vitro. J. Virol. 70: 2842-2851, 1996. PubMed: 8627758

Jang SI, et al. Activator protein 1 activity is involved in the regulation of the cell type-specific expression from the proximal promoter of the human profilaggrin gene. J. Biol. Chem. 271: 24105-24114, 1996. PubMed: 8798649

Anderson SM, et al. Intercellular transfer of a glycoslphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked protein: release and uptake of CD4-GPI from recombinant adeno-associated virus-transducted HeLa cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93: 5894-5898, 1996. PubMed: 8650189

Dittrich E, et al. A di-leucine motif and an upstream serine in the interleukin-6 (IL-6) signal transducer gp130 mediate ligand-induced endocytosis and down-regulation of the IL-6 receptor. J. Biol. Chem. 271: 5487-5494, 1996. PubMed: 8621406

Lee JH, et al. The proximal promoter of the human transglutaminase 3 gene. J. Biol. Chem. 271: 4561-4568, 1996. PubMed: 8626812

Duus KM, Grose C. Multiple regulatory effects of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) gL on trafficking patterns and fusogenic properties of VZV gH. J. Virol. 70: 8961-8971, 1996. PubMed: 8971025

Lieber A, et al. Recombinant adenoviruses with large deletions geneerated by cre-mediated excision exhibit different biological properties compared with first-generation vectors in vitro and in vivo. J. Virol. 70: 8944-8960, 1996. PubMed: 8971024

Yang C, Compans RW. Analysis of the cell fusion activities of chimeric simian immunodeficiency virus-murine leukemia virus envelope proteins: inhibitory effects of the R peptide. J. Virol. 70: 248-254, 1996. PubMed: 8523533

Schubert U, et al. The two biological activities of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu protein involve two separable structural domains. J. Virol. 70: 809-819, 1996. PubMed: 8551619

McKnight KL, Lemon SM. Capsid coding sequence is required for efficient replication of human rhinovirus 14 RNA. J. Virol. 70: 1941-1952, 1996. PubMed: 8627720

Lu FM, Lux SE. Constitutively active human notch 1 binds to the transcription factor CBF1 and stimulates transcription through a promoter containing a CBF1-responsive element. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93: 5663-5667, 1996. PubMed: 8643633

Yamaguchi Y, et al. Biochemical characterization and intracellular localization of the Menkes disease protein. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93: 14030-14035, 1996. PubMed: 8943055

Hewitt SM, et al. Differential function of Wilms' tumor gene WT1 splice isoforms in transcriptional regulation. J. Biol. Chem. 271: 8588-8592, 1996. PubMed: 8621487

Kotanides H, Reich NC. Interleukin-4-induced STAT6 recognizes and activates a target site in the promoter of the interleukin-4 receptor gene. J. Biol. Chem. 271: 25555-25561, 1996. PubMed: 8810328

Zhao Z, et al. Activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway by pervanadate, a potent inhibitor of tyrosine phosphatases. J. Biol. Chem. 271: 22251-22255, 1996. PubMed: 8703041

Quitschke WW, et al. The initator element and proximal upstream sequences affect transcriptional activity and start site selection in the amyloid beta-protein precursor promoter. J. Biol. Chem. 271: 22231-22239, 1996. PubMed: 8703038

Hocking AM, et al. Eukaryotic expression of recombinant biglycan. J. Biol. Chem. 271: 19571-19577, 1996. PubMed: 8702651

Chen H, et al. Octamer binding factors and their coactivator can activate the murine PU.1 (spi-1) promoter. J. Biol. Chem. 271: 15743-15752, 1996. PubMed: 8663022

Macville M, et al. Comprehensive and definitive molecular cytogenetic characterization of HeLa cells by spectral karyotyping. Cancer Res. 59: 141-150, 1999. PubMed: 9892199

Dentistry--Preclinical evaluation of biocompatibility of medical devices used in dentistry--Test methods for dental materials. Geneva (Switzerland):International Organization for Standardization/ANSI;ISO ISO 7405:1997.