Bacillus subtilis subsp. spizizenii Nakamura et al. (ATCC® 6633)

Strain Designations: NRS 231  /  Type Strain: no  /  Biosafety Level: 1

Deposited As Bacillus subtilis (Ehrenberg) Cohn
Strain Designations NRS 231
Application
produces restriction endonuclease Bsu6633I RefShibata T, et al. Site-specific deoxyribonucleases in Bacillus subtilis and other Bacillus strains. J. Bacteriol. 128: 473-476, 1976. PubMed: 824277 RefIkawa S, et al. Genetic studies on site-specific endodeoxyribonucleases in Bacillus subtilis: multiple modification and restriction systems in transformants of Bacillus subtilis 168. Mol. Gen. Genet. 177: 359-368, 1980. PubMed: 6246395 RefRoberts RJ. Restriction and modification enzymes and their recognition sequences. Nucleic Acids Res. 13: r165-r200, 1985. PubMed: 2987885
quality control strain
sporicidal test Ref Chemical disinfectants and antiseptics - Preservation of test organisms used for the determination of bactericidal, sporicidal and fungicidal activity. London, UK:British Standards Institution;British Standard BS EN 12353:2006. Ref Chemical disinfectants --- Quantitative suspension test for the evaluation of sporicidal activity of chemical disinfectants used in food, industrial, domestic and intitutional areas --- Test method and requirements (phase 2, step 1). London, UK:British Standards Institution;British Standard BS EN 13704:2002. Ref Chemical disinfectants and antiseptics --- Basic sporicidal activity --- Test method and requirements (phase 1, step 1). London, UK:British Standards Institution;British Standard BS EN 14347:2005. Ref Chemical disinfectants and antiseptics --- Application of European Standards for chemical disinfectants and antiseptics. London, UK:British Standards Institution;British Standard BS EN 14885:2006.
Biotechnology
Food testing
Pharmaceutical and Personal Care
assay of streptomycin RefEuropean Pharmacopoeia Commission Microbiological assay of antibiotics. Strasbourg, France:European Pharmacopoeia Commission;European Pharmacopoeia EP 2.7.2, 1997 RefAOAC International Antibiotics in feeds, microbiological methods. Gaithersburg, MD:AOAC International;AOAC "Official Methods of Analysis of the AOAC International" 957.23. RefFrerichs GN, Chandler MD. The identification and assay of antibiotics in live virus vaccines by electrophoresis in gel. J. Biol. Stand. 10: 205-211, 1982. PubMed: 6813333 RefSimon HJ, Yin EJ. Microbioassay of antimicrobial agents. Appl. Microbiol. 19: 573-579, 1970. PubMed: 4986725
assay of streptonigrin RefPittillo RF, Woolley C. Biological assay of streptonigrin (NSC 45383) in body fluids and tissues of mice. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 5: 82-85, 1974. PubMed: 4209070
assay of tobramycin RefBritish Pharmacopoeia Commission Biological assay of antibiotics. London, UK:British Pharmacopoeia Commission;British Pharmacopoeia Appendix XIV A, 2003 RefEuropean Pharmacopoeia Commission Microbiological assay of antibiotics. Strasbourg, France:European Pharmacopoeia Commission;European Pharmacopoeia EP 2.7.2, 1997 RefLightbown JW, Dixon H. The first international reference preparation of tobramycin. J. Biol. Stand. 10: 157-168, 1982. PubMed: 7096362
assay of vancomycin RefEuropean Pharmacopoeia Commission Microbiological assay of antibiotics. Strasbourg, France:European Pharmacopoeia Commission;European Pharmacopoeia EP 2.7.2, 1997 RefU.S. Pharmacopeia General Chapters; <81> Antibiotics-Microbial Assays. Rockville, MD: U.S. Pharmacopeia; USP USP34-NF29, 2011
control strain Ref Methodology for the Serum Bactericidal test: Approved Guideline. Wayne, PA. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; CLSI M21-A. Ref Methods for Determining Bactericidal Activity of Antimicrobial Agents; Approved Guideline. Wayne, PA. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; CLSI M26-A. Ref Medical microbiology; methods for the determination of susceptibility of pathogens (except mycobacteria) to antimicrobial agents: carrier of agents for agar diffusion test. Berlin, Germany:Deutsches Institut fur Normung;DIN DIN 58940-2. Ref Methods for the determination of susceptibility of pathogenic bacteria (without mycobacteria) to chemotherapeutic agents of discs for agar diffusion test example for getting the standard curve. Berlin, Germany:Deutsches Institut fur Normung;DIN DIN 58940-2 Beiblatt 1.
media testing RefBritish Pharmacopoeia Commission Tests for microbial contamination. London, UK:British Pharmacopoeia Commission;British Pharmacopoeia Appendix XVI B, 2003 RefEuropean Pharmacopoeia Commission Microbial contamination of products not required to comply with the test for sterility (total viable aerobic count). Strasbourg, France:European Pharmacopoeia Commission;European Pharmacopoeia EP 2.6.12, 1997 RefUS Food & Drug Administration. GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS; General Provisions; Sterility Code of Federal Regulations Title 21: 21CFR610.12, Subpart B, 2005 RefU.S. Pharmacopeia Dietary Supplement Chapters: <2021> Microbial Enumeration Tests-Nutritional and Dietary Supplements. Rockville, MD: U.S. Pharmacopeia; USP USP34-NF29, 2011 Ref Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs--Guidelines on preparation and production of culture media-- Part 2: Practical guidelines on performance testing of culture media.. Geneva (Switzerland):International Organization for Standardization/ANSI;ISO ISO 11133-2:2003. Ref Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs --- Guidelines on preparation and production of culture media --- Part 2: Practical guidelines on performance testing of culture media - Annex B: Recommended test microorganisms for commonly used culture media. London, UK:British Standards Institution;British Standard DD CEN ISO/TS 11133:2003.
membrane filter testing Ref Standard Test Method for Confirming the Sterility of Membrane Filters. West Conshohocken, PA:ASTM International;ASTM Standard Test Method D 4196-05.
assay of amoxicillin RefLode H, et al. Comparative clinical pharmacology of three ampicillins and amoxicillin administered orally. J. Infect. Dis. 129: S156-S168, 1974. PubMed: 4834960
assay of bekanamycin aminodeoxykanamycin, kanamycin B, kanendomycin
assay of capreomycin sulfate capreomycin, capromycin RefBritish Pharmacopoeia Commission Biological assay of antibiotics. London, UK:British Pharmacopoeia Commission;British Pharmacopoeia Appendix XIV A, 2003
assay of colistimethate sodium RefU.S. Pharmacopeia General Chapters; <81> Antibiotics-Microbial Assays. Rockville, MD: U.S. Pharmacopeia; USP USP34-NF29, 2011
assay of colistin colimycin RefU.S. Pharmacopeia General Chapters; <81> Antibiotics-Microbial Assays. Rockville, MD: U.S. Pharmacopeia; USP USP34-NF29, 2011
assay of dactinomycin actinomycin, actinomycin D
assay of dihydrostreptomycin sulfate dihydrostreptomycin RefEuropean Pharmacopoeia Commission Microbiological assay of antibiotics. Strasbourg, France:European Pharmacopoeia Commission;European Pharmacopoeia EP 2.7.2, 1997 RefU.S. Pharmacopeia General Chapters: <71> STERILITY TESTS. Rockville, MD:U.S. Pharmacopeia;USP USP34-NF29, 2011 RefU.S. Pharmacopeia General Chapters; <81> Antibiotics-Microbial Assays. Rockville, MD: U.S. Pharmacopeia; USP USP34-NF29, 2011
assay of erythromycin RefEuropean Pharmacopoeia Commission Microbiological assay of antibiotics. Strasbourg, France:European Pharmacopoeia Commission;European Pharmacopoeia EP 2.7.2, 1997
assay of framycetin RefEuropean Pharmacopoeia Commission Microbiological assay of antibiotics. Strasbourg, France:European Pharmacopoeia Commission;European Pharmacopoeia EP 2.7.2, 1997
assay of gentamicins gentamicin RefFrerichs GN, Chandler MD. The identification and assay of antibiotics in live virus vaccines by electrophoresis in gel. J. Biol. Stand. 10: 205-211, 1982. PubMed: 6813333
assay of hygromycin B RefAOAC International Antibiotics in feeds, microbiological methods. Gaithersburg, MD:AOAC International;AOAC "Official Methods of Analysis of the AOAC International" 957.23.
assay of kanamycin RefBritish Pharmacopoeia Commission Biological assay of antibiotics. London, UK:British Pharmacopoeia Commission;British Pharmacopoeia Appendix XIV A, 2003 RefEuropean Pharmacopoeia Commission Microbiological assay of antibiotics. Strasbourg, France:European Pharmacopoeia Commission;European Pharmacopoeia EP 2.7.2, 1997 RefFrerichs GN, Chandler MD. The identification and assay of antibiotics in live virus vaccines by electrophoresis in gel. J. Biol. Stand. 10: 205-211, 1982. PubMed: 6813333 RefSimon HJ, Yin EJ. Microbioassay of antimicrobial agents. Appl. Microbiol. 19: 573-579, 1970. PubMed: 4986725
assay of lactam antibiotics beta-lactam antibiotics
assay of lasalocid X-537A, lasalocid A
assay of mitomycin mitomycin C
assay of monensin RefAOAC International Monensin in feeds, microbiological method. Gaithersburg, MD:AOAC International;AOAC "Official Methods of Analysis of the AOAC International" 972.56. RefAOAC International Antibiotics in feeds, microbiological methods. Gaithersburg, MD:AOAC International;AOAC "Official Methods of Analysis of the AOAC International" 957.23.
assay of neomycin RefEuropean Pharmacopoeia Commission Microbiological assay of antibiotics. Strasbourg, France:European Pharmacopoeia Commission;European Pharmacopoeia EP 2.7.2, 1997 RefFrerichs GN, Chandler MD. The identification and assay of antibiotics in live virus vaccines by electrophoresis in gel. J. Biol. Stand. 10: 205-211, 1982. PubMed: 6813333 RefSimon HJ, Yin EJ. Microbioassay of antimicrobial agents. Appl. Microbiol. 19: 573-579, 1970. PubMed: 4986725
assay of novobiocin
assay of penicillin RefFrerichs GN, Chandler MD. The identification and assay of antibiotics in live virus vaccines by electrophoresis in gel. J. Biol. Stand. 10: 205-211, 1982. PubMed: 6813333
assay of polymyxin B RefU.S. Pharmacopeia General Chapters; <81> Antibiotics-Microbial Assays. Rockville, MD: U.S. Pharmacopeia; USP USP34-NF29, 2011
assay of rifampin rifampicin, rifamycin AMP
assay of spiramycin RefBritish Pharmacopoeia Commission Biological assay of antibiotics. London, UK:British Pharmacopoeia Commission;British Pharmacopoeia Appendix XIV A, 2003 RefEuropean Pharmacopoeia Commission Microbiological assay of antibiotics. Strasbourg, France:European Pharmacopoeia Commission;European Pharmacopoeia EP 2.7.2, 1997
sterility testing RefBritish Pharmacopoeia Commission Test for sterility. London, UK:British Pharmacopoeia Commission;British Pharmacopoeia Appendix XVI A, 2003 RefEuropean Pharmacopoeia Commission Sterility. Strasbourg, France:European Pharmacopoeia Commission;European Pharmacopoeia EP 2.6.1, 1997 RefU.S. Pharmacopeia General Chapters: <71> STERILITY TESTS. Rockville, MD:U.S. Pharmacopeia;USP USP34-NF29, 2011 RefBowman FW, et al. Collaborative study of aerobic media for sterility testing by membrane filtration. J. Pharm. Sci. 60: 1087-1088, 1971. PubMed: 5000479 Ref Supplemental assay method for testing for preservative interference with sterility tests. :US Department of Agriculture;USDA, Center for Veterinary Biologics STSAM0903.01, 1999 Ref Sterility test, Growth promotion test. Tokyo, Japan:Japanese Pharmacopoeia;JP JP14e.part I.54. Ref Cleanrooms and associated controlled environments--Biocontamination control--Part 1: General principles and methods. Geneva (Switzerland):International Organization for Standardization/ANSI;ISO ISO 14698-1:2003.
susceptibility disc testing novobiocin
susceptibility disc testing rifampin rifampicin, rifamycin AMP
susceptibility testing RefMedical microbiology - Susceptibility testing of pathogens to antimicrobial agents - Part 2: Active substance carriers for the agar diffusion test; Carrier loads and values required for drawing a standard curve. Berlin, Germany: Deutsches Institut fur Normung; DIN 58940-2 Beiblatt 2: 2002
testing Ref Microbial limit test. Tokyo, Japan:Japanese Pharmacopoeia;JP Jp14e.part I.35. Ref Microbial limit test for crude drugs. Tokyo, Japan:Japanese Pharmacopoeia;JP JP14e.part I.36.
testing antibacterial activity Ref Chemical disinfectants and antiseptics --- Surgical hand disinfection --- Test method and requirement (phase 2/step 2). London, UK:British Standards Institution;British Standard BS EN 12791:2005.
testing bactericides
validation control Ref Cleanrooms and associated controlled environments --- Biocontamination control --- Part 1: General principles and methods. London, UK:British Standards Institution;British Standard BS EN ISO 14698:2003.
Type Strain no
Biosafety Level 1
Product Format freeze-dried
Storage Conditions Frozen: -80°C or colder
Freeze-Dried: 2°C to 8°C
Live Culture: See Propagation Section
Preceptrol® no
Type Strain no
Comments
taxonomy
Enzymes
Medium ATCC® Medium 44: Brain Heart Infusion Agar/Broth
Growth Conditions
Temperature: 30°C
Atmosphere: Aerobic
Name of Depositor NR Smith
Special Collection ATCC
References

Waleh NS, Ingraham JL. Pyrimidine ribonucleoside monophosphokinase and the mode of RNA turnover in Bacillus subtilis. Arch. Microbiol. 110: 49-54, 1976. PubMed: 189719

Shibata T, et al. Site-specific deoxyribonucleases in Bacillus subtilis and other Bacillus strains. J. Bacteriol. 128: 473-476, 1976. PubMed: 824277

Ikawa S, et al. Genetic studies on site-specific endodeoxyribonucleases in Bacillus subtilis: multiple modification and restriction systems in transformants of Bacillus subtilis 168. Mol. Gen. Genet. 177: 359-368, 1980. PubMed: 6246395

The genus Bacillus, Agriculture Handbook 427. Washington, DC: ARS/USDA; 1973.

British Pharmacopoeia Commission Biological assay of antibiotics. London, UK:British Pharmacopoeia Commission;British Pharmacopoeia Appendix XIV A, 2003

British Pharmacopoeia Commission Test for sterility. London, UK:British Pharmacopoeia Commission;British Pharmacopoeia Appendix XVI A, 2003

British Pharmacopoeia Commission Tests for microbial contamination. London, UK:British Pharmacopoeia Commission;British Pharmacopoeia Appendix XVI B, 2003

. Biotechnology and food safety. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann; 1990.

AOAC International Monensin in feeds, microbiological method. Gaithersburg, MD:AOAC International;AOAC "Official Methods of Analysis of the AOAC International" 972.56.

European Pharmacopoeia Commission Sterility. Strasbourg, France:European Pharmacopoeia Commission;European Pharmacopoeia EP 2.6.1, 1997

European Pharmacopoeia Commission Microbial contamination of products not required to comply with the test for sterility (total viable aerobic count). Strasbourg, France:European Pharmacopoeia Commission;European Pharmacopoeia EP 2.6.12, 1997

European Pharmacopoeia Commission Microbiological assay of antibiotics. Strasbourg, France:European Pharmacopoeia Commission;European Pharmacopoeia EP 2.7.2, 1997

Methodology for the Serum Bactericidal test: Approved Guideline. Wayne, PA. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; CLSI M21-A.

Methods for Determining Bactericidal Activity of Antimicrobial Agents; Approved Guideline. Wayne, PA. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; CLSI M26-A.

US Food & Drug Administration. GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS; General Provisions; Sterility Code of Federal Regulations Title 21: 21CFR610.12, Subpart B, 2005

U.S. Pharmacopeia General Chapters: <71> STERILITY TESTS. Rockville, MD:U.S. Pharmacopeia;USP USP34-NF29, 2011

U.S. Pharmacopeia General Chapters; <81> Antibiotics-Microbial Assays. Rockville, MD: U.S. Pharmacopeia; USP USP34-NF29, 2011

U.S. Pharmacopeia Dietary Supplement Chapters: <2021> Microbial Enumeration Tests-Nutritional and Dietary Supplements. Rockville, MD: U.S. Pharmacopeia; USP USP34-NF29, 2011

AOAC International Antibiotics in feeds, microbiological methods. Gaithersburg, MD:AOAC International;AOAC "Official Methods of Analysis of the AOAC International" 957.23.

Noya F, et al. Heme compounds as iron sources for nonpathogenic Rhizobium bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 179: 3076-3078, 1997. PubMed: 9139934

Kiesau P, et al. Evidence for a multimeric subtilin synthetase complex. J. Bacteriol. 179: 1475-1481, 1997. PubMed: 9045802

Yeaman MR, et al. Purification and in vitro activities of rabbit platelet microbicidal proteins. Infect. Immun. 65: 1023-1031, 1997. PubMed: 9038312

Lode H, et al. Comparative clinical pharmacology of three ampicillins and amoxicillin administered orally. J. Infect. Dis. 129: S156-S168, 1974. PubMed: 4834960

Frerichs GN, Chandler MD. The identification and assay of antibiotics in live virus vaccines by electrophoresis in gel. J. Biol. Stand. 10: 205-211, 1982. PubMed: 6813333

Lightbown JW, Dixon H. The first international reference preparation of tobramycin. J. Biol. Stand. 10: 157-168, 1982. PubMed: 7096362

Jansen EF, Hirschmann DJ. Subtilin -- an antibacterial product of Bacillus subtilis. Culturing conditions and properties. Arch. Biochem. 4: 297-309, 1944.

Bowman FW, et al. Collaborative study of aerobic media for sterility testing by membrane filtration. J. Pharm. Sci. 60: 1087-1088, 1971. PubMed: 5000479

Simon HJ, Yin EJ. Microbioassay of antimicrobial agents. Appl. Microbiol. 19: 573-579, 1970. PubMed: 4986725

Pittillo RF, Woolley C. Biological assay of streptonigrin (NSC 45383) in body fluids and tissues of mice. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 5: 82-85, 1974. PubMed: 4209070

Roberts RJ. Restriction and modification enzymes and their recognition sequences. Nucleic Acids Res. 13: r165-r200, 1985. PubMed: 2987885

Nakamura LK, et al. Relationship of Bacillus subtilis clades associated with strains 168 and W23: a proposal for Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis subsp. nov. and Bacillus subtilis subsp. spizizenii subsp. nov.. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 49: 1211-1215, 1999. PubMed: 10425781

Supplemental assay method for testing growth promoting qualities of fluid thioglycollate medium and soybean-casein digest medium using Bacillus Subtilis spores and Candida krusei as the indicator organisms. :US Department of Agriculture;USDA, Center for Veterinary Biologics STSAM0900.01, 1999

Supplemental assay method for testing growth-promoting qualities of brain heart infusion agar using Bacillus subtilis spores and Candida krusei as indicator organisms. :US Department of Agriculture;USDA, Center for Veterinary Biologics STSAM0902.01, 1999

Supplemental assay method for testing for preservative interference with sterility tests. :US Department of Agriculture;USDA, Center for Veterinary Biologics STSAM0903.01, 1999

Microbial assay for antibiotics. Tokyo, Japan:Japanese Pharmacopoeia;JP JP14e.part I.34.

Microbial limit test. Tokyo, Japan:Japanese Pharmacopoeia;JP Jp14e.part I.35.

Microbial limit test for crude drugs. Tokyo, Japan:Japanese Pharmacopoeia;JP JP14e.part I.36.

Sterility test, Growth promotion test. Tokyo, Japan:Japanese Pharmacopoeia;JP JP14e.part I.54.

Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs--Guidelines on preparation and production of culture media-- Part 2: Practical guidelines on performance testing of culture media.. Geneva (Switzerland):International Organization for Standardization/ANSI;ISO ISO 11133-2:2003.

Cleanrooms and associated controlled environments--Biocontamination control--Part 1: General principles and methods. Geneva (Switzerland):International Organization for Standardization/ANSI;ISO ISO 14698-1:2003.

Medical microbiology; methods for the determination of susceptibility of pathogens (except mycobacteria) to antimicrobial agents: carrier of agents for agar diffusion test. Berlin, Germany:Deutsches Institut fur Normung;DIN DIN 58940-2.

Methods for the determination of susceptibility of pathogenic bacteria (without mycobacteria) to chemotherapeutic agents of discs for agar diffusion test example for getting the standard curve. Berlin, Germany:Deutsches Institut fur Normung;DIN DIN 58940-2 Beiblatt 1.

Medical microbiology - Susceptibility testing of pathogens to antimicrobial agents - Part 2: Active substance carriers for the agar diffusion test; Carrier loads and values required for drawing a standard curve. Berlin, Germany: Deutsches Institut fur Normung; DIN 58940-2 Beiblatt 2: 2002

Standard Test Method for Confirming the Sterility of Membrane Filters. West Conshohocken, PA:ASTM International;ASTM Standard Test Method D 4196-05.

Chemical disinfectants and antiseptics - Preservation of test organisms used for the determination of bactericidal, sporicidal and fungicidal activity. London, UK:British Standards Institution;British Standard BS EN 12353:2006.

Chemical disinfectants --- Quantitative suspension test for the evaluation of sporicidal activity of chemical disinfectants used in food, industrial, domestic and intitutional areas --- Test method and requirements (phase 2, step 1). London, UK:British Standards Institution;British Standard BS EN 13704:2002.

Chemical disinfectants and antiseptics --- Surgical hand disinfection --- Test method and requirement (phase 2/step 2). London, UK:British Standards Institution;British Standard BS EN 12791:2005.

Chemical disinfectants and antiseptics --- Basic sporicidal activity --- Test method and requirements (phase 1, step 1). London, UK:British Standards Institution;British Standard BS EN 14347:2005.

Chemical disinfectants and antiseptics --- Application of European Standards for chemical disinfectants and antiseptics. London, UK:British Standards Institution;British Standard BS EN 14885:2006.

Cleanrooms and associated controlled environments --- Biocontamination control --- Part 1: General principles and methods. London, UK:British Standards Institution;British Standard BS EN ISO 14698:2003.

Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs --- Guidelines on preparation and production of culture media --- Part 2: Practical guidelines on performance testing of culture media - Annex B: Recommended test microorganisms for commonly used culture media. London, UK:British Standards Institution;British Standard DD CEN ISO/TS 11133:2003.

U.S. Pharmacopeia General Chapters: <61> Microbial Examination of Nonsterile Products: Microbial Enumeration Tests. Rockville, MD USP34-NF29, 2011

ISO/CD 11133:2009, Annex E. Test microorganisms for commonly used culture media (giving information on the culture medium, culture conditions, test microorganisms, culture collection number of test organisms and the expected reactions)

Corry, JEL, Curtis, GDW and Baird, RM (Eds) Handbook of Culture Media for Food and Water Microbiology. Royal Society of Chemistry, In preparation. ICFMH-WPCM.

Cross References

Nucleotide (GenBank) : M38634 B.subitilis cellulase gene, 5' end, clone pBAG10.

Nucleotide (GenBank) : J03767 B.subtilin spaS gene encoding subtilin, complete cds.

Nucleotide (GenBank) : L07785 Bacillus subtilis spaR and spaK genes, complete coding regions.

Nucleotide (GenBank) : M83944 Bacillus subtilis subtilin (spaD, spaB, spaC, spaS) genes, complete cds.

Nucleotide (GenBank) : AB018486 Bacillus subtilis gene for 16S rRNA, partial sequence, strain:ATCC 6633.

Nucleotide (GenBank) : AF004102 Bacillus subtilis strain ATCC 6633 thymidylate synthase (thyA) gene, partial cds.

Nucleotide (GenBank) : J03294 Bacillus subtilis thioredoxin (trx), uvrB and aspartokinase II genes, complete cds.

Nucleotide (GenBank) : L24075 Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633) spaB gene involved in subtilin biosynthesis, complete cds.

Nucleotide (GenBank) : M99263 Bacillus subtilis operon encoding spaB, spaC, spaD, spaE and spaS genes, complete cds's; ORF, complete cds.

Nucleotide (GenBank) : U38418 Bacillus subtilis chimeric proU operon, proV, proW, proX and proZ genes, complete cds, and spaE gene, partial cds.

Nucleotide (GenBank) : U09819 Bacillus subtilis spaB, spaT, spaC, subtilin (spaS), spaI, spaF, spaE, spaG, spaR spaK and YvaN genes, complete cds.

Nucleotide (GenBank) : M86869 Bacillus subtilis spaB gene, 3' end; spaT gene, complete cds; spaC gene, complete cds; subtilin (spaS) gene, putative cds.